Family Life Education With Diverse Populations

by Alan C. Taylor and Sharon M.

Author Alan C Taylor and Sharon M Ballard Isbn 9781412991780 File size 1MB Year 2011 Pages 344 Language English File format PDF Category Family and Friendship Family and human service professionals in a variety of disciplines engage in family life education which is designed to strengthen enrich and empower families This includes many content areas such as couple and parent child relationships balancing work and family parenting financial literacy interpersonal communication and sex

Publisher :

Author : Alan C. Taylor and Sharon M. Ballard

ISBN : 9781412991780

Year : 2011

Language: English

File Size : 1MB

Category : Family and Friendship

Family Life

Family Life

Sharon M. Ballard
Alan C. Taylor
East Carolina University

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Family life education with diverse populations / [edited by]
Sharon M. Ballard, Alan C. Taylor.

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1. Family life education. 2. Families. I. Ballard, Sharon M.
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About the Editors


About the Contributing Authors
Chapter 1. Best Practices in Family Life Education


Sharon M. Ballard, CFLE, and Alan C. Taylor, CFLE
Chapter 2. Family Life Education With Rural Families


Charlotte Shoup Olsen, CFLE, and Kristy L. Archuleta
Chapter 3. Family Life Education With Prison Inmates
and Their Families


Maureen T. Mulroy
Chapter 4. Family Life Education With Court-Mandated
Parents and Families


Judith A. Myers-Walls, CFLE
Chapter 5. Family Life Education With Military Families


Elizabeth B. Carroll, CFLE, Catherine Clark Morgan Smith,
CFLE, and Andrew O. Behnke, CFLE
Chapter 6. Family Life Education With Grandfamilies:
Grandparents Raising Grandchildren
Eboni J. Baugh, CFLE, Alan C. Taylor, CFLE,
and Sharon M. Ballard, CFLE


Chapter 7. Family Life Education With
American Indian Families


Dianne Duncan Perrote, CFLE, and Saul Feinman
Chapter 8. Family Life Education With Latino
Immigrant Families


Paul L. Schvaneveldt, CFLE, and Andrew O. Behnke, CFLE
Chapter 9. Family Life Education With Asian
Immigrant Families


Shann Hwa (Abraham) Hwang, CFLE
Chapter 10. Family Life Education With Arab
Immigrant Families


Libby Balter Blume, CFLE, Annita Sani, and Menatalla Ads
Chapter 11. Family Life Education With Black Families


Eboni J. Baugh, CFLE, and DeAnna R. Coughlin
Chapter 12. Family Life Education With Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual, and Transgender Families


Lis Maurer, CFLE
Chapter 13. Preparing Family Life Educators to Work
With Diverse Populations


Alan C. Taylor, CFLE, and Sharon M. Ballard, CFLE




here is a constant need for more information and resources specific to the field
of family life education. In this time of “evidence-based,” “best practices,” “outcomes,” etc., it is apparent that there is a particular need for a resource that helps
family life educators identify best practices within family life education. One of
the cornerstones of family life education is the importance of meeting the needs
of the target audience. The challenge is to understand and then to meet the unique
needs of so many diverse audiences. Thus, the idea of a book that pulled together
best practices in family life education specific to various populations was born. We
decided to test the idea in a symposium at the annual conference of the National
Council on Family Relations (NCFR). We had a successful symposium at the conference in 2009 and had much positive feedback. We immediately began soliciting
chapter authors who would be able to provide valuable insights and contributions
to a book on family life education with diverse populations. The result is a book
that captures the essence of 11 different populations and provides practical information vital to anyone who works with families.
There are many potential audiences for this book. First, it can be used as a
textbook for courses in family life education, family diversity, human services,
and community practice. The book can be used in professional development or
training activities with practicing family professionals. Finally, practicing family
professionals within community agencies; cooperative extension services; or other
local, state, or national organizations that work with diverse populations will find
this book to be a valuable resource.
Judith Myers-Walls (2000) has suggested that family life education is faced with
questions of family diversity from three perspectives: (1) What will an educator
teach? (2) Whom will an educator teach? (3) How will an educator teach? (p. 359;
please see the References in Chapter 1 for the full reference).
Our book, Family Life Education With Diverse Populations, addresses all three
of these questions posed by Myers-Walls.
This book includes chapters on the following populations: rural families; prison
inmates and their families; court-mandated parents and families; military families;



grandfamilies: grandparents raising grandchildren; American Indian families;
Latino immigrant families; Asian immigrant families; Arab immigrant families;
black families; and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families. We
recognize that there are many populations omitted from this volume. However,
great care was taken in selecting these 11 groups. First, we chose populations with
clear parameters that might have unique needs. For example, immigrant family
groups are included because of the specific issues related to language and cultural
adaptation. Similarly, American Indian families are included because of the unique
parameters of working on a reservation with Native families. We also make a
conscious attempt to fill the gap in the literature. There are some populations for
which there are more materials available or whose needs might not demand unique
content or methods.
This book pulls together the best of what is known about working with
these 11 populations in an effort to provide a foundation and a starting place
for family life educators. The goal of this book is to provide clear information on what research has shown to work (best practices) when designing and
implementing family life education programming with various populations.
Each chapter is written by an author(s) who has some sort of experience with
the respective population and describes this experience at the beginning of the
chapter. Each chapter, other than the introductory (Chapter 1) and concluding chapters (Chapter 13), has a consistent format. Using the questions posed
by Myers-Walls (2000) in thinking about serving diverse audiences, the first
three sections of the chapter answer the question of “Whom will the educator
teach?”: (1) defining the population, (2) unique aspects of the population, and
(3) strengths and assets of the population. This section lays the foundation for
work with this population. There are many in-depth resources available that
cover many of these populations. Consequently, the goal was not to duplicate
them but to provide an overview of unique aspects of the population that might
provide a foundation for programming as well as strengths of the population on
which family life educators can build.
The next sections answer the questions “What will the educator teach?” and
“How will the educator teach?” and includes the following specific headings:
(1) Current State of Family Life Education With This Population, (2) General
Needs of This Population and Rationale for Family Life Education, (3) Marketing/
Recruitment, (4) Barriers to Participation, (5) Environmental Considerations,
(6) Modes of Learning, (7) Educator Characteristics, (8) Ethical Considerations,
and (9) Best Practices in Family Life Education Programming. The chapter concludes with Future Directions. Throughout these sections, authors were asked to


glean best practices from the literature and to present a sample of successful or
promising programs. We also asked authors to use examples from their own work
to illustrate these best practices.
Chapter 1 further explores issues related to evidence-based practices (EBPs) and
programs and the difficulties with which family life educators are faced in negotiating the need for an evidence-base in their work. A Framework for Best Practices
in Family Life Education is introduced in an effort to clarify which components
of family life education are truly essential for best practice consideration. Chapter
13 concludes the book with a discussion of important components of an effective
family life educator and how we can move the profession of family life education

Information in this book can be used to do the following:
• Improve an existing program to better reflect the needs of a specific
• Adapt a universal program to fit a specific population
• Develop a new program for a particular population
• Assess current programming efforts to see if it is adequate for the target
• Increase understanding of various populations, the importance of knowing
your audience, and knowing which questions to ask and what program
components should be considered when thinking of cultural relevance
• Increase capacity to adequately meet needs of particular participants within
a mixed population (e.g., a parent education class with gay/lesbian parents,
Latino immigrant parents, and grandparents raising grandchildren in the
• Identify evidence-based programs that are available for a given population
Readers will benefit from the experienced eye of the authors as they present a
balance of information and pull it together in a way that has, to date, not been done
before. This volume is one that all family life educators will want on their shelf
and that they will refer to often. It is our hope that this volume will assist family
life educators to better meet the needs of diverse families, thereby strengthening
and enriching families.





As we finished this book, we recognized that we had been involved in this project
for nearly 3 years. It was an e-mail exchange on September 19, 2008, from Sharon
to Alan with an idea for a book that would fill a needed gap in the field of family
life education. We look back at this journey as one in which we’ve each grown
significantly in our personal and professional lives as family life educators and
have a stronger understanding of family life education work with diverse populations than ever before. We’ve come to recognize that we now have more sympathy and compassion for anyone who has taken or will take on the task of editing
scholarly books! With that said, we’ve been fortunate to work closely with some
of the brightest and most experienced family life educators. They have written such
thought-provoking and interesting chapters for this book. We thank them for their
great contributions.
Along with the chapter authors, there are many other people we would like to
thank who have helped to make this book a reality. First, we would like to thank
Kassie Graves at Sage and her production team for their assistance, support, and
guidance. We would like to thank the reviewers of the initial book proposal for
their insightful feedback that immediately began to shape the book into its final
product. We would like to thank Sarah Miller for her attention to detail and editorial assistance. Lorraine Blackman was an early contributor on the chapter addressing family life education with black families, and we thank her for her efforts.
Finally, we would like to thank our families. Sharon would like to thank her husband, Kevin Gross, and her son, Jamie Gross, for their love and continued patience
and support during this project. Alan would like to thank his wife, Kelly, for being
a wonderful partner and sounding board for his thoughts and ideas associated with
this book. She was helpful in her critical review and feedback during the writing
and editing process. Alan would also like to thank Kelly and his five children
(Bronson, Holden, Camryn, Ethan, and Lauryn) for their constant love and support,
particularly associated with this book project.

About the Editors

Sharon M. Ballard, PhD, CFLE, CFCS, is an associate professor in the
Department of Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina
University. She has been a certified family life educator (CFLE) since 1998 and is
serving her seventh year on the CFLE advisory board with the National Council
on Family Relations (NCFR). After teaching Family and Consumer Sciences for
6 years at the high school level, Sharon completed her graduate work in Child and
Family Studies at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville and started teaching at
the university level. She has taught both undergraduate and graduate courses in
family life education and family studies, and has conducted a variety of family life
education programs in community settings. She has also authored or coauthored
numerous journal articles, many of which are about family life education.
Alan C. Taylor, PhD, CFLE, is an assistant professor in the Department of Child
Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University. Alan has taught
family life education and family relationship curriculum at the university level
for the past 14 years. He has worked within the community as a family life educator in a state prison setting and also as a court-mandated parenting instructor.
Alan received his master’s degree in family life education from Brigham Young
University, his PhD in Family and Child Development from Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University and has held the credential of CFLE since 1998. He
has authored or coauthored numerous journal articles and book chapters within
edited books.


About the Contributing Authors

Menatalla M. Ads, BA, is currently a clinical psychology PhD student at the
University of Detroit Mercy. Her BA in general psychology and English language
and literature was received from the University of Michigan–Ann Arbor. Her
experience with ethnic populations includes community development projects in
Cairo, Egypt, and Detroit, Michigan, and lived experience within multicultural
communities. She is presently the teacher assistant of Dr. Libby Balter Blume,
PhD, CFLE. Menatalla is contributing to Dr. Blume’s current research with Arab
American mothers and their daughters, which investigates family-level constructions of nationality, religion, and culture.
Kristy L. Archuleta, PhD, LMFT, is an assistant professor in the School of
Family Studies and Human Services at Kansas State University. She has served
as director and codirector of Women Managing the Farm since 2005 and is currently the director of the Institute of Personal Financial Planning Clinic. Kristy has
authored several publications and presented workshops on the topics of money and
relationships and rural populations and currently serves as coeditor of the Journal
of Financial Therapy. One of Kristy’s therapy specializations is working with rural
Eboni J. Baugh, PhD, CFLE, is an assistant professor in the Department of
Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University. Eboni has
taught undergraduate and graduate courses in family studies for 11 years and has
5 years’ experience as a family and consumer sciences specialist within cooperative extension. She has authored, coauthored, and reviewed journal articles and
extension curricula, in addition to training community volunteers and county
extension faculty in many areas of family life education.
Andrew O. Behnke, PhD, CFLE, is an assistant professor and human development extension specialist in the Department of 4-H Youth Development and Family
and Consumer Sciences at North Carolina State University. Andrew partners,
designs, implements, and evaluates various family life education programs that
foster healthy children, families, and communities. He conducts outreach efforts
and publishes applied research in the areas of stress and resilience, teen issues,



academic achievement among youth, parent involvement in academics, stress and
parenting, and fatherhood. He is recognized in the field for his efforts to serve
military families and Latino immigrant families via programs such as the Juntos
program, the Illuminando program, and Essential Life Skills for Military Families.
Libby Balter Blume, PhD, CFLE, is a professor in the Department of Psychology
at the University of Detroit Mercy where she directs the programs in CFLE, developmental psychology, and community development. She has been a member of
the NCFR for 20 years and a CFLE since 1999. Libby teaches undergraduate and
graduate courses in human development, family relations, environmental psychology, and women’s and gender studies. She has edited family studies journals,
coauthored two textbooks on middle childhood and adolescence, and has published
book chapters on transnational families, multicultural and critical race feminisms,
and the social construction of ethnic identities. Her current research with Arab
American immigrant mothers and their teenage daughters explores family-level
constructions of nationality, religion, and culture.
Elizabeth (Bettie Ann) B. Carroll, JD, CFLE, is an associate professor in
the Department of Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina
University, Greenville, North Carolina. She earned her undergraduate degree at
the University of Mississippi, master’s degree in marriage and family therapy from
East Carolina University, and doctor of jurisprudence from Mississippi College
School of Law. She primarily teaches classes in family life education and family
law and public policy. She is the principal investigator of the Healthy Marriage
Life Skills: A Family Readiness Program, funded by HHS-ACF Healthy Marriage
Initiative, which targets Reserve Component and National Guard service members
and their families. She coauthored the Essential Life Skills for Military Families
curriculum and research interests include family life education for military families, financial literacy, and family history. Before her academic career, she was
bond director for the Mississippi Treasury Department and an attorney in the
Mississippi Secretary of State’s office.
DeAnna R. Coughlin, BS, is a graduate student in the Department of Child
Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University. She is currently
pursuing her master’s degree with a specialization in sexuality studies. DeAnna
received her bachelor’s of science degree from Kansas State University in family
studies and human services with a minor in women’s studies. DeAnna plans on
pursuing a career working with families with a focus on sexuality.
Saul Feinman, PhD, is professor emeritus of child & family studies (Department
of Family & Consumer Sciences) and of sociology at the University of Wyoming
and still teaches a variety of sociology courses in the summer session. He has

About the Contributing Authors

taught at Dine College (formally Navajo Community College), which is the tribal
college of the Navajo Nation, and at the San Juan Campus of the College of Eastern
Utah (part of Utah State University), where around half of the students are Navajo
or Ute. He has also worked as a consultant on issues of cultural diversity, primarily
with a focus upon health care and higher education.
Shann Hwa (Abraham) Hwang, PhD, CFLE, is an associate professor in the
Department of Family Sciences at Texas Woman’s University. He has been a
CFLE since 2000 and is serving his first year on the CFLE advisory board with
the NCFR. Abraham has taught family life education and family studies courses
at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate) for 10 years. He has
also conducted a variety of family life education programs in community settings,
particularly with the Asian population. He has authored journal articles, many of
which are about family life education.
Lis Maurer, MS CFLE, is director of the Center for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual
& Transgender Education, Outreach, and Services at Ithaca College. Lis has
provided family life education in diverse community settings: for students and
teachers in the United States, peer educators in Namibia, Girl Scout troops,
religious education classes, correctional facilities, day care providers, and communities of elders. The American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors
and Therapists has designated Lis a certified sexuality educator and counselor.
Maurer is Senior Advisory Editorial Board member of the American Journal
of Sexuality Education and serves on the editorial board of The Prevention
Researcher. Coeditor of Doing Gender Diversity: Readings in Theory and RealWorld Experience, published by Westview Press, Maurer also teaches at the
graduate and undergraduate levels.
Maureen T. Mulroy, PhD, is an associate professor emerita from the University
of Connecticut. Cofounder of the Connecticut Parenting Education Network, she
was instrumental in the development of the state’s parenting educator credential.
Currently residing in Tennessee, Maureen continues her work with and for families via pro bono private practice; board membership for children, families, and
the community service agencies; and serving as the state representative to the
American Psychological Association’s (APA) ACT Against Violence initiative.
Judith A. Myers-Walls, PhD, CFLE, is a professor emerita in the Department
of Human Development and Family Studies at Purdue University. She has been
a CFLE since 1991 and was an extension specialist and university professor for
more than 30 years. During that time period, she presented approximately 25 community or regional family life education programs each year; created curricula and
developed programs for parents, families, and human service professionals; and




taught family life education in the college classroom for 7 years. She helped to
coauthor models such as the National Extension Parent Education Model and the
National Extension Parenting Educators Framework and most recently cocreated
the Domains of Family Practice model.
Charlotte Shoup Olsen, PhD, CFLE, is a professor and extension specialist in
the School of Family Studies and Human Services at Kansas State University.
She has authored or coauthored numerous publications and resources for the
cooperative extension service that have been used nationwide in family life
education settings. She also has conducted a variety of trainings for extension
and community-based professionals on the process of planning, delivering, and
evaluating family life education programming. In addition, Charlotte is a frequent
workshop presenter for delivering family life education to audiences from diverse
backgrounds. She has been a CFLE with the NCFR since 1994.
Dianne Duncan Perrote, MS, CFLE, works for Lux Consulting Group, Inc. in
Silver Springs, Maryland. She has been a CFLE for 13 years. Dianne has over 19
years’ experience in early childhood education including more than 18 years working with Native American communities. She has demonstrated skills of identifying
and developing culturally enhanced methods and strategies based on research and
applies them to work in parent involvement, curriculum, and program development. Throughout her career, Dianne has focused on strengthening communities
by building collaborations and providing research-based information in order to
strengthen capacity.
Annita A. Sani, PhD, is a clinical psychologist. She has lived and worked in
Dubai, located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), since 2001. Currently, she is
an educational consultant in the Department of Special Education for the UAE
Ministry of Education and develops policies, procedures, and professional development training programs for determining K through 12 students’ eligibility for
special education programs and services. Annita was an assistant professor at
Zayed University in Dubai from 2001 until 2009 and taught undergraduate courses
in psychology, individual and family assessment, and intervention to female Arab
students. Prior to moving to the UAE, Annita lived and worked in Michigan
and was adjunct professor at the University of Detroit Mercy where she taught
undergraduate courses in developmental psychology and was a certified school
psychologist. She has experience providing family life education and counseling
services to Arab children and their families in Michigan and the UAE.
Paul L. Schvaneveldt, PhD, CFLE, is an associate professor in the Department
of Child and Family Studies at Weber State University. He has taught in family
science for 17 years and is a CFLE. Paul directs a family literacy program and

About the Contributing Authors

a federally funded marriage education program serving primarily Latino populations. He was a Fulbright Scholar through the U.S. Department of State and
taught, developed programs, and conducted research at universities in Ecuador.
Paul served as the chair of the International Section of the NCFR and president
of the Family Science Association. He has authored numerous journal articles
and book chapters on Latino family dynamics.
Catherine Clark Morgan Smith, RN, MS, NFA, CFLE, CDON-LTC, with the
Essential Life Skills for Military Families project at East Carolina University, is
the first North Carolina state employee hired solely as a family life educator. She
has presented nationally at numerous professional and military conferences on
military family needs and resilience, taught at several community colleges, and
was a hospital community education coordinator. Overseas she served as a U.S.
Department of Defense school nurse and as the information and referral/site manager for a military family service center. Her association with the U.S. Navy, U.S.
Air Force, and U.S. Marine Corps spans 30 years. Her areas of research include
military family resiliency and aging within family systems. She has authored or
coauthored journal articles, community health columns, health care organization
policy and procedural manuals, and research-based curricula.


Chapter 1

Best Practices in Family Life
Sharon M. Ballard, CFLE, and Alan C. Taylor, CFLE

According to Standards & Criteria: Certified Family Life Educator (CFLE)
Designation (National Council on Family Relations [NCFR], 2011b), “Family life
education is the educational effort to strengthen family life through a family perspective. The objective of family life education is to enrich and improve the quality
of individual and family life” (p. 3). Family life education is relevant across the life
span, is inclusive of all types of families, and is designed to meet the true needs
of the target audience (Arcus, Schvaneveldt, & Moss, 1993). However, given the
diversity of families, it is often difficult to determine the true needs of an audience,
and many audiences may be hard to reach. According to Wiley and Ebata (2004),
family life educators cannot effectively teach audiences of which they are unfamiliar or unaware. Beyond just knowing about diversity among individuals and
families, family life educators also must be cognizant of the unique challenges and
opportunities that arise from developing and implementing programs specifically
for diverse populations.
This book examines 11 diverse populations and identifies the best practices for
meeting the unique family life education needs of each of them. In this chapter,
we begin by discussing diversity and diverse families. We then define best practices and distinguish best practices from other related terms. Specifically, we set
the stage for the book by discussing three components of family life education
practices: (1) program content, (2) program design, and (3) the family life educator. When set in the context of culture, strengths, and needs of the population,
these three components comprise the Framework for Best Practices in Family Life

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