Family and Health Evolving Needs Responsibilities and Experiences Volume 8B

by Jennifer Higgins McCormick and Sampson Lee

Author Jennifer Higgins McCormick and Sampson Lee Blair Isbn 9781784411268 File size 2 2MB Year 2014 Pages 250 Language English File format PDF Category Family and Friendship Around the globe families are often faced with a variety of health issues often as a result of social political religious and economic forces Health issues affect both individual family members and the family unit as a whole as well as impacting family relationships and structures Illnesses injuries and health p

Publisher :

Author : Jennifer Higgins McCormick and Sampson Lee Blair

ISBN : 9781784411268

Year : 2014

Language: English

File Size : 2.2MB

Category : Family and Friendship



FAMILY AND HEALTH:
EVOLVING NEEDS,
RESPONSIBILITIES, AND
EXPERIENCES

CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES
IN FAMILY RESEARCH
Series Editor: Sampson Lee Blair
Recent Volumes:
Volume 1:

Through the Eyes of the Child Re-Visioning Children as
Active Agents of Family Life Edited by Michael Abrams,
Johnson Matthey, B. A. Murrer, Felix M. Berardo,
Constance L. Shehan, 2000

Volume 2:

Families, Crime and Criminal Justice Charting the
Linkages Edited by Greer Litton Fox and
Michael L. Benson, 2000

Volume 3:

Minding the Time in Family Experience Emerging
Perspectives and Issues Edited by Kerry Daly, 2001

Volume 4:

Intergenerational Ambivalences New Perspectives on
Parent-Child Relations in Later Life Edited by
Karl A. Pillemer and Kurt K. Luscher, 2003

Volume 5:

Families in Eastern Europe
2004

Volume 6:

Economic Stress and the Family
Blair, 2012

Volume 7:

Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures
and Identities Edited by Patricia Neff Claster and Sampson
Lee Blair, 2013

Edited by Mihaela Robila,
Edited By Sampson Lee

Volume 8A: Family Relationships and Familial Responses to Health
Issues Edited by Jennifer Higgins McCormick and
Sampson Lee Blair, 2014

CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES IN FAMILY RESEARCH
VOLUME 8B

FAMILY AND HEALTH:
EVOLVING NEEDS,
RESPONSIBILITIES, AND
EXPERIENCES
EDITED BY

SAMPSON LEE BLAIR
The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA

JENNIFER HIGGINS McCORMICK
Trocaire College, NY, USA

United Kingdom North America
India Malaysia China

Japan

Emerald Group Publishing Limited
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First edition 2014
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ISBN: 978-1-78441-126-8
ISSN: 1530-3535 (Series)

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CONTENTS
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

vii

EDITORIAL BOARD

ix

FOREWORD

xi

A MULTI-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
WELL-BEING RELATED TO WORK AND FAMILY
IN 33 COUNTRIES
Makiko Hori and Yoshinori Kamo

1

THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC
STATUS ON HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE HPV VACCINE
Hanna Jokinen-Gordon

27

MULTIPLE MOTHERHOODS: THE EFFECT OF THE
INTERNALIZATION OF MOTHERHOOD IDEALS
ON LIFE SATISFACTION
Kayla M. Pritchard and Lisa A. Kort-Butler

45

THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF DAUGHTERS OF
WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER
Amanda C. Ginter and M. Elise Radina

79

DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND THE HEALTHCARE
SYSTEM IN MOLDOVA: REFORMS AND
CHALLENGES
Valentina Bodrug-Lungu and Erin Kostina-Ritchey

v

105

vi

CONTENTS

LONG-TERM CARE NEEDS AND LONG-TERM CARE
POLICY: COMPARING GERMANY AND ISRAEL
Monika Reichert, Gerd Naegele, Ruth Katz,
Ariela Lowenstein and Dafna Halperin

131

AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF CURRENT
OBSTETRICAL OPINIONS, DIAGNOSTIC AND
PRACTICE TRENDS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF
TWIN TO TWIN TRANSFUSION SYNDROME
PATIENTS
Lauren Nicholas

169

STRESS AND SUPPORT AMONG PEOPLE CARING
FOR HOMELESS ADULT RELATIVES
Michael F. Polgar, Carol S. North and David E. Pollio

223

DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMOLOGY AMONG RURAL
LOW-INCOME LATINA AND NON-LATINA
WHITE MOTHERS
Jacy Downey and Kimberly Greder

247

FROM BOYS TO MEN: SHIFTING FAMILY
GENDER IDEOLOGIES AMONG BLACK AND
WHITE ADULT MEN
Myron T. Strong and Erma Lawson

271

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

297

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Valentina BodrugLungu

Moldova State University, Moldova

Jacy Downey

Iowa State University, USA

Amanda C. Ginter

Towson University, USA

Kimberly Greder

Iowa State University, USA

Dafna Halperin

Max Stern Yezreel Valley College, Israel

Makiko Hori

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga,
USA

Hanna Jokinen-Gordon Arkansas Center for Health Improvement,
University of Arkansas for Medical
Sciences, USA
Yoshinori Kamo

Louisiana State University, USA

Ruth Katz

Max Stern Yezreel Valley College and
University of Haifa, Israel

Lisa A. Kort-Butler

University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA

Erin Kostina-Ritchey

Texas Tech University, USA

Erma Lawson

University of North Texas, USA

Ariela Lowenstein

Max Stern Yezreel Valley College and
University of Haifa, Israel

Gerd Naegele

Dortmund University, Germany

Lauren Nicholas

D’Youville College, USA

Carol S. North

The University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center and VA North Texas
Health Care System, USA

vii

viii

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Michael F. Polgar

The Pennsylvania State University
Hazleton, USA

David E. Pollio

University of Alabama at Birmingham,
USA

Kayla M. Pritchard

South Dakota School of Mines and
Technology, USA

M. Elise Radina

Miami University, USA

Monika Reichert

Dortmund University, Germany

Myron T. Strong

Community College of Baltimore County,
USA

EDITORIAL BOARD
Clarence M. Batan
University of Santo Tomas,
Philippines

Josip Obradovic´
University of Zagreb,
Croatia

Eli Buchbinder
University of Haifa, Israel

Gary W. Peterson
Miami University, USA

Yu-Hua Chen
National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Matthias Pollman-Schult
Social Science Research Center
Berlin, Germany

Teresa M. Cooney
University of Colorado-Denver,
USA

Allison J. Pugh
University of Virginia, USA

Rosalina Pisco Costa
University of E´vora, Portugal

Ria Smit
University of Johannesburg,
South Africa

Alda Britto da Motta
Federal University of Bahia, Brazil

Helen M. Stallman
University of South Australia,
Australia

Giovanna Gianesini
University of Bologna, Italy

Fleur Thome´se
VU University, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands

Cardell K. Jacobson
Brigham Young University, USA

ix

FOREWORD
Like their counterparts in the medical sciences, sociologists have often
noted that health and well-being are essentials, not only to individuals, but
also to the larger society. Each and every person, regardless of nationality,
social class, sex, or age, has to deal with health problems and concerns,
sometimes only occasionally, as is the case with acute ailments, but sometimes as a matter of daily life, as is the case with chronic health problems.
Although health problems affect each person as an individual, the undeniable truth is that the health and well-being of individuals occur within the
familial context. When a family member’s health is failing, other family
members will inevitably become involved in the situation. When a child is
ill, parents will typically do anything and everything they possibly can in
order to assist their daughter or son. When elderly parents become
infirmed, adult children will rush to their aid. Even in the instance of
extended kin who are ill or injured, the familial network will almost always
react and become involved. Simply, health and well-being may be measured
in terms of individuals, but the reality is that the family and the familial
context are where the impact of health can be most readily understood.
The health of individuals is intertwined with the family in numerous
manners. For example, families often represent the primary source of support for dealing with the financial costs associated with health care.
Whether in westernized or developing countries, the costs of health care for
a family member can often be overwhelming and beyond the means of the
individual. In the United States, the annual healthcare expense for a family
of four is over $22,000. This figure is quite staggering, as it represents over
40% of the median income for such families. Beyond parent child relationships and the mutual financial support which is typical therein,
extended kin often come to the financial aid of one another when medical
expenses and health care costs are great. In countries which lack either government or private health insurance, families are often the one and only
source of financial assistance for dealing with health-related expenses.
Family members also provide instrumental care to infirmed, ill, or
injured relatives. In many cultures, familistic norms prompt relatives of all
varieties to provide care for other kin. This may entail becoming a family
xi

xii

FOREWORD

caregiver, providing for the care of some or all of a relative’s needs.
Following the hospitalization of a family member, a family caregiver may
dedicate several days, weeks, or even months to attending to their physical,
mental, and emotional needs. Understandably, this can be a considerable
burden, particularly in the case of chronic problems, where the family caregiver may take on responsibilities which last for years or even decades.
Family caregivers are often seen as “filling the void” in the healthcare systems of some societies, and their assistance is, more often than not, entirely
unpaid and frequently unsupported. Previous studies have even suggested
that the role of family caregiver is not without its own risks, and that caregivers sometimes become “secondary patients” because of the stress and
toil associated with their caregiving role.
Even basic behavioral habits which can affect health and well-being are
developed primarily within the family. Families can influence the development of good health, such as encouraging proper dietary and exercise patterns, particularly among children and adolescents. The familial context
can, likewise, be harmful to individuals’ health, as a consequence of stress,
neglect, or even abuse. Simply, the family represents a multifaceted context
for health and health care, and one which absolutely necessitates greater
study and understanding.
In this volume of Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research, we
examine the changing nature of health issues and health care within
families. Accordingly, the volume is entitled “Family and Health: Evolving
Needs, Responsibilities, and Experiences.” By learning more about how
families cope with and respond to health issues, we can gain considerable
insight into how families in the near future might better deal with the various complications which health problems often bring about.
In “A Multi-Level Analysis of Psychological Well-Being Related to
Work and Family in 33 Countries,” Makiko Hori and Yoshinori Kamo use
data from the International Social Survey Programme to examine how the
societal level gender climate impacts the effects of gender roles on psychological well-being for married and employed men and women in 33 countries.
Their findings firmly support the contention that country-level gender
equalities and gender norms affect individual well-being. Beyond cultural
factors, basic sociodemographic characteristics of families, such as household income, often affect healthcare decisions. Hanna Jokinen-Gordon
addresses this issue in “The Influence of Family Socioeconomic Status on
Health Care Professional Recommendations of the HPV Vaccine.” Using
data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, she examines whether
family socioeconomic status influences the likelihood of healthcare

Foreword

xiii

professionals’ recommendation of the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV)
among female youth age 12 17. In her analyses, Jokinen-Gordon finds that
lower income families have significantly lower odds of vaccine initiation, yet
the effect of household income is mediated by HCP recommendation. Her
findings suggest that low-income and poor families are less likely to receive
needed health information regarding the HPV vaccine, thereby reducing the
likelihood of vaccine uptake.
Even the basic roles and identities of family members can affect
health and well-being. In “Multiple Motherhoods: The Effect of the
Internalization of Motherhood Ideals on Life Satisfaction,” Kayla M.
Pritchard and Lisa Kort-Butler examine how the life satisfaction and wellbeing of women can be influenced by their specific motherhood status.
Using data from the National Study of Fertility Barriers, they find that
women’s well-being is significantly affected by motherhood status, and that
biological mothers tend to experience the highest levels of well-being.
Cultural ideals, however, are shown to have a salient effect upon the relationship between motherhood status and well-being. The maternal role is
also examined by Amanda C. Ginter and M. Elise Radina in their study,
“The Lived Experiences of Daughters of Women with Breast Cancer.”
Through a series of qualitative interviews with adult daughters whose
mother had experienced breast cancer, they find that mother daughter relationships play a central role in how both mothers and other family members
cope with the disease. The flow and nature of communication about the
situation, both within the family and with healthcare professionals, is shown
to be essential.
Understandably, health care and health-related concerns can vary dramatically from one society to another. In “Demographic Trends and the
Healthcare System in Moldova: Reforms and Challenges,” Valentina
Bodrug-Lungu and Erin Kostina-Ritchey examine changes in both the
availability and quality of health care in the Moldovan population.
Following its separation from the former Soviet Republic, the population of
Moldova has experienced a decline in fertility rates. Over the past quarter of
a century, this has led to an increase in the elderly population and, subsequently, a greater need for age-specific health care needs. Through an examination of demographic data, Bodrug-Lungu and Kostina-Ritchey examine
and discuss the changes in health care policies, administration, and provisions which are necessary. Country-specific healthcare issues are also examined by Monika Reichert, Gerd Naegele, Ruth Katz, Ariela Lowenstein,
and Dafna Halperin in “Long-Term Care Needs and Long-Term Care
Policy: Comparing Germany and Israel.” Through a comparative analysis

xiv

FOREWORD

of the healthcare programs and policies in Germany and Israel, the authors
illustrate the cultural component of healthcare, specifically as it pertains to
the long-term needs of the elderly population. Although each country is
unique in its population characteristics and its respective healthcare needs,
there are a variety of both positive attributes and shortcomings to each
nation’s approach to long-term care for the elderly.
In most nations, patients tend to assume that, within the healthcare professions, the flow and exchange of knowledge about specific ailments and
treatment options is relatively smooth and seamless. In “An Examination
of the Effects of Current Obstetrical Opinions, Diagnostic and Practice
Trends in the Management of Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome
Patients,” Lauren Nicholas demonstrates that such assumptions are not
entirely valid. Through an in-depth analysis of obstetric practitioners, she
finds that exchange and dissemination of knowledge among medical professionals is often haphazard, to the point that the very lives of expectant
mothers and their unborn children are endangered. Not all people in need
of healthcare are able to avail of healthcare professionals. In “Stress and
Support among People Caring for Homeless Adult Relatives,” Michael F.
Polgar, Carol S. North, and David E. Pollio explore the role of family caregivers who provide assistance to homeless relatives. Drawing upon a series
of qualitative interviews of homeless individuals and their kin, the authors
find that family caregivers who assist the homeless experience considerable
stress, as a result. This is particularly the case among homeless individuals
who may seek to harm themselves, as family caregivers often lack the skills
and knowledge necessary to properly deal with such situations.
The dilemmas associated with impoverishment are also examined
by Jacy Downey and Kimberly Greder in their study, “Depressive
Symptomology among Rural Low-Income Latina and non-Latina White
Mothers.” Using data gleaned from interviews of rural, low-income
mothers, the authors find that the stressors associated with depression vary
substantially, depending upon the ethnicity of the women. The ethnicityspecific nature of depression was shown to be evident not only in terms of
the levels of depression, but also in regard to its sources. The relationship
between race/ethnicity and mental well-being is also examined in “From
Boys to Men: Shifting Family Gender Ideologies among Black and White
Adult Men.”
The authors, Myron T. Strong and Erma Lawson, examine how variations in masculine identities and ideologies among African-American and
White males are associated with their respective family roles and, subsequently, with mental well-being. They find that ideologies pertaining to

Foreword

xv

familial roles do, indeed, vary substantially by race/ethnicity, and that these
ideologies can have salient consequences for mental well-being.
Overall, the authors in this volume provide a very broad and enlightening examination of the intertwined nature of health and the family.
Together, their studies offer considerable insight into how families cope
with health problems, how these patterns of coping vary across cultures
and across a wide range of sociodemographic traits, and how the health
needs of family members are met. Both individually and collectively, the
authors also offer numerous recommendations for policy-makers and practitioners, with the clear goal of improving both the diagnosis and treatment
of health problems for family members. Many thanks are due to the
authors for their efforts herein, to the many reviewers who assisted in the
review process, and to the editorial staff at Emerald Publishing.
Sampson Lee Blair
Jennifer Higgins McCormick
Editors

A MULTI-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING
RELATED TO WORK AND FAMILY
IN 33 COUNTRIES
Makiko Hori and Yoshinori Kamo
ABSTRACT
Purpose This study explores the interplay between macro- and microlevel predictors of psychological well-being related to work and family.
We use nations as the context and investigate how country-level gender
equalities and gender norms affect individual well-being and its relationship to micro-level predictors.
Design/methodology/approach Social role explanations suggest that
women’s vulnerability in mental health is due to socially assigned gender
roles and gendered socialization. We utilize multi-level modeling and
data from the International Social Survey Programme 2002, to examine
how the societal level gender climate impacts the effects of gender roles
on psychological well-being for married and employed men and women in
33 countries.

Family and Health: Evolving Needs, Responsibilities, and Experiences
Contemporary Perspectives in Family Research, Volume 8B, 1 25
Copyright r 2014 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved
ISSN: 1530-3535/doi:10.1108/S1530-35352014000008B009

1

2

MAKIKO HORI AND YOSHINORI KAMO

Findings Gender differences in mental health remain, but larger differences are observed in less egalitarian countries regarding gender. Also,
caring roles are negatively associated with women’s psychological wellbeing to a greater degree than men’s, and the negative impacts are stronger in more egalitarian countries. Furthermore, men show lower wellbeing regarding work responsibility, but the gender effects are weaker in
more egalitarian countries.
Social implications
Our psychological well-being is affected not only
by the actual role behaviors but also by how we each perceive these roles.
Originality/value
This study provides a broader picture of the relationship between gender and psychological well-being related to work
and family. It also illustrates complex relationships between macro-level
gender climate and individual-level psychological well-being and how
structural differences may impact individual outcomes.
Keywords: Psychological well-being; gender; work and family; crossnational comparison

INTRODUCTION
Gender inequalities in individual relationships and societal systems still
exist in most societies and cultures. Even in the most egalitarian countries,
domestic responsibilities such as household chores and child care are
primarily assigned to women (e.g., Batalova & Cohen, 2002), and it is common for employed women to shoulder both paid work and domestic
responsibilities. Due to socially expected nurturing and caring roles for
women and more involvement in family responsibilities, it has long been
believed that family matters affect women’s physical and mental health
much more than men’s (Kessler, McLeod, & Wethington, 1985; Pearlin &
Lieberman, 1979; Simon, 1998).
Meanwhile, the level of gender inequality, how it has been reduced (or
not), gender ideology at the societal level, and how systems of gender
equality are structured vary across countries. Then, the question is whether
women in the world feel the same way with these common female challenges, in spite of these cross-national differences. Do they feel pressured to
the same extent regarding family and work responsibilities, regardless of
the different expectation in each country? When they cannot handle their

Psychological Well-Being in 33 Countries

3

“female” roles well, is it socially acceptable in some countries but not in
others?
This study examines how the differences in social structure, specifically
the gender climate in a society, affect the psychological well-being of men
and women across countries. We focus here on married and employed
people from 33 countries to examine if the effects of traditionally assigned
gender roles (i.e., employment, parenthood, and housework) on their psychological well-being vary in different societies. Specifically, we explore the
interaction between the degree of gender stratification and gender norms
in society and various individual-level factors on psychological well-being
of married and employed adults. We expect that the effects of individuallevel factors on psychological well-being depend on the national context
(i.e., structural and cultural differences).
Although cross-national comparisons regarding people’s values, beliefs,
and attitudes have become a popular theme for social scientists (e.g., the
World Values Survey), the relationship between psychological well-being
and gender-related factors across countries has not been fully explored. In
this study, we try to shed light on the link between the macro-level influence of structural differences and/or similarities among societies and microlevel psychological outcomes of individuals. The finding may help us to
understand why the same life experience may cause different outcomes
among people in different countries.

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING AND SOCIAL ROLE EXPLANATIONS
Gender differences in psychological well-being have been examined primarily in the United States. In the next two sections, we explore theoretical
explanations offered for gender differences in psychological well-being and
describe changes in gender relations in the United States. Though we believe
that structural differences among societies affect psychological well-being
and micro-level causal relationships, we also believe that the mechanism of
how micro-level factors affect psychological well-being in different manners
for men and women is similar in most countries. Thus, examining the literature in the United States should be helpful for the same research question in
societies other than the United States.
Researchers have claimed that women tend to have higher rates of
depressive symptoms than men and this prevalence is due to traditional

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