Parent Child Relations

by Phyllis Heath

Author Phyllis Heath Isbn 9780134461144 File size 14MB Year 2017 Pages 480 Language English File format PDF Category Family and Friendship Note This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book use ISBN 0134290054 This life span approach to parent child relations gives students a comprehensive contemporary look at theories research andtechniques withinhistorical and cultural contexts It

Publisher :

Author : Phyllis Heath

ISBN : 9780134461144

Year : 2017

Language: English

File Size : 14MB

Category : Family and Friendship


Context, Research, and Application
Fourth edition

Phyllis Heath
Central Michigan University

330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013

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ISBN 10: 0-13-446114-2
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To my children, Ken, Todd, and Kelly

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About the Author

Phyllis Heath is Professor Emerita in the Department of Human Environment Studies
at Central Michigan University. She also has taught courses for Michigan State
University in Okinawa, Japan. She was educated at the University of North Carolina
at Asheville (where she earned a BA in Psychology), the University of North Carolina
at Charlotte (where she earned an MA in Human Development and Learning), and
the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (where she earned a PhD in Child
Development and Family Relations). Her research has focused on the ways in which
parent–child relationships affect the development of children and adolescents. This
research has included the influence of parenting patterns on children’s social competence, factors affecting parenting patterns (such as gender role ideology and locus
of control), and the links between parenting patterns and adolescent depression. She
also has researched parenting patterns of indigenous people in Oaxaca, Mexico, and
South Africa.

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This book was written to acquaint undergraduate students with the study of parent–
child relations in the following major areas:
• The history of childrearing in the United States and philosophical and theoretical
perspectives that have guided child socialization practices in this country.
• Variations in childrearing patterns, including the childrearing practices of ethnic
majority and ethnic minority parents in the United States and childrearing practices in other countries.
• Child socialization strategies for guiding children to become increasingly more
competent and to have higher self-esteem and parenting skills for preventing and
responding to problem behaviors and for resolving parent–child conflict.
• Coverage of parent–child relations at each of the following developmental
stages: infancy and toddlerhood, preschool and middle childhood, early to late
adolescence, and early to late adulthood.
• The changes that occur in the lives of parents who have children with exceptionalities or chronic illnesses who require specialized care and recommendations
for helping parents to meet these challenges.
• Parent–child interactions in families in which a parent has an exceptionality or a
disability that requires specialized care.
• The lives of children who are maltreated and/or exposed to parental violence
or parental alcoholism and suggestions for interventions for these parents and
• The challenge faced by parents and children who are dealing with the untimely
death of a family member and recommendations for helping children and parents throughout the grieving process.
• The grief of adults and children associated with the death of an older parent or
grandparent, including alterations that occur in family interaction patterns following the death of an older parent.

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New to This Edition: The Pearson eText
• In the Pearson eText, embedded short answer questions called Test Your
Knowledge, as well as written feedback, have been added to the end of each
chapter. This allows students to check their understanding of the material they
have read. These additions provide guidance for focusing on the main points in
the chapter and provide the opportunity for students to demonstrate their understanding of the content.
• Also in the Pearson eText, several relevant videos have been added to each
chapter to allow students to hear from parents and children in various family
contexts throughout society.
• A New Digital Glossary of Terms. Definitions of unfamiliar terms have been
added as a feature to each chapter so students can quickly determine the meaning of unfamiliar concepts by clicking on the term in the eText to reveal the definition. This feature is designed to enhance student understanding of the material.

New Content to This Edition
Since the publication of the third edition, much new research has focused on families. There have also been a number of changes in public policy and laws that influence U.S. families as well as families throughout the world. In response to these
changes, this new edition includes the following:
• A discussion related to preparation for parenthood, which includes important
decisions that prospective parents must make in anticipation of becoming parents through pregnancy or adoption.
• An increased emphasis on the various contexts of parenting, which reviewers
and colleagues have cited as a primary strength of this book. For example, this
edition includes more information about parents and children in military families, parents and children in immigrant families, parents and children in LGBT
families, the lives of adolescent parents and their children, and information
related to transracial and intercountry adoption.
• More emphasis on the role of gender in parent–child relationships. This includes
research showing the influence of parent and child gender on parenting roles
and practices, an expanded coverage of fathers, a greater emphasis on coparenting, the ways in which gender influences the roles of grandparents rearing grandchildren, the role of daughters and daughters-in-law in caring for aging parents,
and the differing experiences of aging mothers and fathers.
• Additional personal anecdotes from parents and children in various family circumstances. This addition is in response to feedback from college students who
said that they thought these examples personalized the material for them.
• Updated information regarding the influence of technology on parenting
and grandparenting has been interwoven throughout all of the chapters. This addition emphasizes the value of technology in the lives of family members as well as
the challenges parents face in monitoring their children’s use of ­technology.

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• Updated research featuring the latest findings on the role of parents in promoting their children’s brain development, such as early literacy, and limiting
screen time during infancy and early childhood.
• Increased coverage on the influence of low socioeconomic status and poverty
on the lives of children, their parents, and their grandparents.
• The Double ABCX Model of Family Stress and Adaptation has been added to
the theories chapter and is used throughout the book to help students understand
family interactions when experiencing high levels of stress.
• A greater integration of theory, research, and application throughout the textbook to remind students of how theory and research play out in actual behaviors
of family members in various circumstances.
• The latest changes in laws and policies affecting the lives of parents and children
such as new directions in improving the quality of child care for infants and toddlers and changes in the law that allow for same-sex marriage in all states in the
United States.
• ”Spotlight on” special issues features have been added throughout the textbook
to highlight the ways in which poverty, diversity, and technology impact the
lives of parents and children.
• More than 20% of new research coverage has been included in this edition and
includes research from scholars within the United States and around the world.

Contextual Approach to Parenting
The contextual approach to parenting, which is a distinctive feature of this book, is
emphasized by the inclusion of both historical and cultural approaches to understanding parent–child relations. I examine how these relationships have changed
during the past century and the ways in which early and contemporary psychological theorists and early childhood educators have shaped these changes. I also
emphasize how recent changes in the family (such as the rising rates of grandparent
primary caregivers and teenage parents) have altered caregiver–child relationships.
Explorations of parent–child relationships in various ethnic groups within and outside the United States also are integral parts of this textbook. Theory and research in
human development and family relations have been interwoven with presentations
of cultural and structural variations in the family; this focus is the basis for all of the
chapters in the text.
A discussion drawing attention to how cultural beliefs affect parent–child relations is presented early in the text. Because the cultural approach is a central theme
of this book, it is essential to understand that there are important differences and similarities in parent–child relationships across cultures. A discussion of the variations in
families as a result of marital status, sexual orientation, and care of children by adults
other than parents is presented early in the text as well. The purpose of addressing
the similarities and differences in various family arrangements is to heighten understanding of the commitment to the care of children that exists in families regardless
of the conditions that have brought them together. The early presentations of cultural
and structural variations in families are not meant to stand alone but rather to set the

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stage for discussions throughout the text that focus on parents and children in the
various settings in which their development occurs. This approach allows students to
see how culture and family variations and age and gender are related to parent–child
interactions at each stage of life.

A Life-Span Approach
This textbook examines parent–child relationships from conception to death and
focuses not only on the influence of parents on children but also on the influence of children on parents. Those reciprocal influences continue to be examined as both children
and parents age. The life-span approach emphasizes the ways in which p
­ arent–child
relationships influence the development of individuals, not only throughout childhood and adolescence but also across the life span. For ­example, Chapter 9 focuses
on the relationships of young adults to their parents and to their children, including how those relationships affect young adult development. Similarly,  ­Chapter  10
focuses on the ways in which middle-age parenthood and grandparenthood influence
the ongoing development of persons as they age.

Parenting Strategies
Another distinctive feature of this textbook is the in-depth coverage of parenting
strategies. An overview of contemporary parenting strategies includes a variety of
techniques. Sufficient examples are provided to help explain each technique and
enhance students’ understanding of how to use each of them. The coverage of these
strategies early in the book sets the stage for the upcoming chapters that focus on
parenting of children at different stages of development and with different developmental needs. The parenting strategies presented in this textbook provide guidance
for professionals working with children and their parents or other caregivers. The first
part of Chapter 4 includes strategies designed to prevent misbehavior, promote the
child’s self-esteem, and enhance effective parent–child communication. The second
part of that chapter focuses on methods used for providing consequences for behavior and resolving parent–child conflict. The presentation of various childrearing strategies early in the book helps lay the groundwork for the upcoming chapters. Chapter
4 together with the previous chapters prepares students to integrate theory, research,
and technique while working with children and parents in various family contexts.

Critical Thinking Questions
Each chapter includes a variety of critical thinking questions that allow students to
pause in their reading to consider how the chapter relates to their own life experiences or how they might use this material in working with parents and children in
various contexts. Responses from my students and the students of my colleagues who
also use this textbook have been that they like the critical thinking questions because
they help students better understand the material. I also have used these critical
thinking questions as the basis of an assigned classroom journal in which students

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choose several questions from each chapter and write their responses to the questions in a weekly journal and then share them in small classroom groups.

Implications for Parents and Professionals
Each chapter includes brief Implications for Parents and Professionals sections that
include guidelines designed to help students pause from their reading and consider
ways in which the information provided might be used in working with parents and
children in their future professions.

Supplements to the Textbook
This text is accompanied by PowerPoint® slides, an Instructor’s Resource Manual,
and a Test Bank. The Instructor’s Resource Manual prepared by the author includes
chapter-by-chapter learning objectives, chapter summaries, suggested classroom
activities, and special assignments. The fourth edition Test Bank contains a variety of
test items in multiple-choice and essay formats. The supplements can be found in the
Instructor’s Resource Center at

Preparing a textbook is an enormous undertaking that involves an entire network of
individuals, and I have many people to thank for their contributions. For this edition
of the book, I have had the privilege of working with editor Julie Peters. I am very
grateful for the consistently supportive responses that Julie provided to me during the
process of writing this edition. I also am appreciative of the valuable recommendations that Julie has made that I believe strengthen this book in a variety of ways. I
also had the opportunity to work with Megan Moffo, Content Producer, who had the
demanding task of keeping things organized and providing consistent feedback to
me in the production process. I am very grateful for her assistance. Many thanks to
both of you.
The reviewers for this edition were indispensable for the numerous comments
and recommendations for the improvement they provided. I am very grateful for the
time and care spent by the reviewers to give me detailed, well-informed reviews:
Linda Behrendt, Indiana State University; Sherria Taylor, Western Michigan University; and Cynthia B. Wilson, University of Montevallo. The person in charge of overseeing the digital features of the book was Carolyn Schweitzer, who worked closely
with me to be sure that each of the features was relevant to the material presented.
Amy Saucier and Michelle Gardner worked with me on photos and other important
production tasks. Many thanks to all of you.

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Brief Contents
Chapter 1
Historical and Theoretical Influences of Childrearing    1
Chapter 2
Parenting Patterns and the Impact of Culture and Context    29
Chapter 3
Parents and Children in Varied Family Structures    63
Chapter 4
Child Socialization Strategies and Techniques    105
Chapter 5
Becoming Parents and Parenting Infants and Toddlers    136
Chapter 6
Parent–Preschooler Interactions    169
Chapter 7
Parents and Their School-Age Children    201
Chapter 8
Parent–Adolescent Interactions    230
Chapter 9
The Relationships of Young Adults, Their Parents, and
Their Children    260
Chapter 10
Middle-Age and Older Parenthood and Grandparenthood    286
Chapter 11
Parent–Child Relationships in Families Where Children or Parents
Have Special Needs    312
Chapter 12
Families at Risk and Families Coping with the Death of a Family
Member   341
Four Nationally Recognized Parenting Programs    366
Glossary   371
References   375
Author Index    420
Subject Index    440

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Chapter 1
Historical and Theoretical Influences of Childrearing    1
Autocratic Parenting: A Tradition of Harsh, Strict Childrearing    2
The Hobbesian View: The Willful Child  •  Puritan Beliefs: The Sinful
Child  •  The Questioning of Autocratic Parenting  •  The Legacy of
G. Stanley Hall: The Child Study Movement  •  Watson: The Dangers of
Parental Affection
Conflicting Theories About Children’s Behavior and Motivations    6
Theories that Emphasized Parental Understanding of Children  •  Sigmund
Freud: A Focus on Children’s Natural Instincts  •  Attachment Theory:
A Focus on Parental Responsiveness  •  Benjamin Spock: Limits Within
the Context of Warmth and Affection  •  B. F. Skinner: Reinforcement as
a Consequence of Appropriate Behavior  •  The Social Learning Theorists:
Imitation and Modeling  •  Erikson: The Resolution of Psychological
Crises  •  Respecting and Attending to Children’s Enthusiasm for
Learning  •  Maria Montessori: Children Have Absorbent Minds  •  Caroline
Pratt: Children’s Play Is Their Work  •  Jean Piaget: Children Actively Engage
Their Environments  •  Lev Vygotsky: Parents as Partners in Children’s
The Role of Context in Child Socialization    16
Rudolf Dreikurs’s Social Discipline Theory: Democracy in the
Family  •  Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model  •  Parental Ethnotheories:
Cultural Ideas Parents Have Regarding Children, Families, and Themselves as
Parents  •  Family Systems Theory  •  Family Development Theory  •  The
Systemic Family Development Model  •  The Double ABCX Model of Family
Stress and Adaptation
The Importance of the Parental Role    21
Galinsky’s Six Stages of Parenthood  •  Mothers, Fathers, and Others in the
Parenting Role

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The Interface Between Parents and the Community    25
Parents, Children, and Technology in the 21st Century    26
Summary   26
Test Your Knowledge    27
Useful Websites    28
Key Terms    28

Chapter 2
Parenting Patterns and the Impact of Culture and Context    29
Child Socialization Patterns of American Parents   30
Authoritative Parents  •  Authoritarian Parents  •  Permissive Parents
•  Indulgent Parents  •  Indifferent Parents  •  Overprotective
Parents  •  Parents with Inconsistent Child Socialization Patterns
Cultural Variations in Parenting Patterns    46
Child Socialization in Non-Western Societies  •  The Traditional Parenting
Pattern in the United States   
Other Contextual Influences on Parenting Patterns   53
The Effects of Socioeconomic Status  •  The Influence of Religiosity  •  The
Influence of Families of Origin  •  The Effects of Children’s
Characteristics  •  Parenting Styles and Children’s Use of Technology
Summary   60
Test Your Knowledge    61
Useful Websites    61
Key Terms    62

Chapter 3
Parents and Children in Varied Family Structures    63
Families and Adoption    65
Birth Parents and Adoptive Parents  •  Domestic Transracial and International
Transracial Adoptions
Surrogate Parents: Foster Parents and Grandparents    70
Foster Parents and Foster Children  •  Grandfamilies: Grandparents Rearing
Their Grandchildren
Parents and Children Affected by Divorce    76
The Effects of Custody Arrangements   •  Factors Related to the Postdivorce
Adjustment of Children   •  Parents and Children in Stepfamilies   
Adolescent Parents and Their Children    83
Pregnancy and Childbirth   •  Teenage Fatherhood   •  The Children of
Adolescent Parents   •  Support for Adolescent Parents and Their Children

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Families With a Member Who Is Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender    88
Changing Views of Family to Include LGBT People  •  The Pathways to
Parenthood for LGBT Parents  •  Challenges for Gay and Lesbian Parents and
Their Children  •  Children Who Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender
Parents and Children in Immigrant Families    94
Acculturation  •  Language Differences
Parents and Children in Military Families    97
Domestic and International Relocation  •  The Effects of Deployment on
Family Members   
Summary   102
Test Your Knowledge    103
Useful Websites    103
Key Terms    104

Chapter 4
Child Socialization Strategies and Techniques    105
Guidance as Prevention of Problems    106
Establishing an Atmosphere of Psychological Safety   •  Guidance as
Encouragement of Children   •  Four Pluses and a Wish—A Strategy for
Motivating Children’s Compliance   •  The Concept of Belongingness and
Children’s Goals of Misbehavior
Effective Parent–Child Communication as a Parenting Strategy    116
Problem Ownership   •  Active Listening   •  I-Messages
Guidance as Reinforcement and Modeling    121
Reinforcement of Approved Behavior   •  Imitation and Modeling
Guidance as Limits, Consequences, and Conflict Resolution    124
The Technique of Induction   •  Natural and Logical Consequences
•  Problems Associated with Using Punishment as a Disciplinary Strategy
Resolving Parent–Child Conflict    130
The Advantages of Using the No-Lose Method of Conflict Resolution
Summary   133
Test Your Knowledge    134
Useful Websites    134
Key Terms    135

Chapter 5
Becoming Parents and Parenting Infants and Toddlers    136
Pathways to Parenthood    137
The Decision to Become Parents   •  Pathways to Parenthood in
Contemporary Society   •  Optimizing the Chances of Having Healthy Babies

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Birth and the Transition to Parenthood    144
When Infants Are Born Early and/or Small   •  The Transition to
Parenthood: A Major Developmental Milestone   •  Changes in Family and
Friendship Networks   •  Caring for Infants and Toddlers in a Coparenting
Relationship   •  Social Support for Parents of Infants and Toddlers
Promoting the Social-Emotional Development of Infants and Toddlers    148
Infant Trust and Attachment   •  Parental Support of Self-Regulatory
Behavior   •  Parent–Infant Play   •  Parental Influences on Toddlers’
Autonomy and Exploratory Behavior
Promoting the Cognitive Development of Infants and Toddlers    156
Insights from Piaget   •  Insights from Vygotsky   •  Insights from Brain
Research   •  Parents’ Understanding of Infant Perception   •  Promoting
Infant Language Development
Promoting the Physical Development of Infants and Toddlers    160
Meeting Nutritional Needs   •  Providing Health Care   •  The Promotion of
Fine and Gross Motor Skills
Infant/Toddler Care When Parents Are at Work    164
The Quality of Center-Based Care and Home-Based Care   •  Infants and
Toddlers in Child Care Settings
Summary   166
Test Your Knowledge    167
Useful Websites    168
Key Terms    168

Chapter 6
Parent–Preschooler Interactions    169
The Parental Role in Promoting Preschoolers’ Social-Emotional
Development   170
Early Attachment and Parent–Preschooler Relationships   •  Promoting
the Young Child’s Sense of Initiative   •  Parental Contributions to
Preschoolers’ Self-Esteem   •  Talking to Young Children About Their
Emotions   •  Promoting Preschoolers’ Self-Reliance   •  Helping Young
Children Discover Their Personal Boundaries
Promoting Young Children’s Cognitive Development    176
Insights from Piaget   •  Insights from Vygotsky   •  The Role of Parents in
Promoting Language Development
Promoting Preschoolers’ Physical Development    183
Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Preschoolers   •  Understanding the
Brain Development of Young Children   •  The Promotion of Fine and
Gross Motor Skills
The Development of Personal and Family Life Skills    190

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Child Care for Preschool Children    191
Quality Child Care Indicators
Challenges and Concerns of Parents of Young Children    192
Sleeping Problems   •  Sibling Relationships   •  Aggressive
Behaviors   •  Unsupervised Risk-Taking Behaviors
Summary   198
Test Your Knowledge    200
Useful Websites    200
Key Terms    200

Chapter 7
Parents and Their School-Age Children    201
Promoting School-Age Children’s Social-Emotional Development    202
Parental Influences on Their Children’s Psychosocial Development
Parental Influences on Children’s Social Relationships    204
The Influence of Childrearing Patterns   •  The Role of Attachment   •  The
Effect of Context   •  Parental Structuring of Children’s Leisure Time and Peer
Group Relations   •  The Parents’ Role in Children’s Informal Leisure Activities
Promoting School-Age Children’s Cognitive Development    211
Encouraging Children’s Logical Reasoning   •  The Use of Guided
Participation   •  The Role of Parents in Children’s School Achievement
Promoting the Physical Development of School-Age Children    215
Meeting School-Age Children’s Nutritional Needs   •  Nutrition and the
Growing Problem of Children Being Overweight   •  Promoting Motor Skills
The Benefits and Challenges of Media    225
The Benefits of Media   •  The Challenges of Media
Summary   227
Test Your Knowledge    229
Useful Websites    229
Key Terms    229

Chapter 8
Parent–Adolescent Interactions    230
The Role of Parents in Adolescents’ Cognitive Development    231
The Development of the Ability to Use Abstract Reasoning   •  The Influence
of Parents on Academic Achievement
The Role of Parents in Adolescents’ Social-Emotional Development and
Social Relationships   234
The Role of Parents in Adolescents’ Conceptions of Self

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Adolescent Puberty and Parent–Child Relations    238
Puberty and Adolescent Relationships with Parents
Changes in the Family System and Parent–Adolescent Conflict    240
Disequilibrium in the Family   •  Parent–Adolescent Conflict
Problems That Adolescents Sometimes Face    244
The Role of Parents in Adolescent Depression   •  The Role of
Parents in Adolescent Problems of Being Overweight   •  Adolescents
Who Are Underweight   •  The Role of Parents in Adolescent
Substance Abuse   •  The Role of Parents in Adolescent Crime and
Delinquency   •  The Role of Parents in the Early Onset of Sexual
Behavior   •  Adolescent Bullying and Victimization
The Benefits and Challenges of Media and Other Technology    254
The Benefits of Technology for Adolescent Development and Family
Dynamics   •  The Challenges of Media and Technology for Adolescents and
Their Families
Summary   257
Test Your Knowledge    259
Useful Websites    259
Key Terms    259

Chapter 9
The Relationships of Young Adults, Their Parents,
and Their Children    260
The Role of Parents in Young Adults’ Assumption of Adult Roles    261
The Launching of Young Adults   •  When Young Adults Establish Separate
The Enduring Bond Between Young Adults and Their Parents    265
The Economic Interdependence of Young Adults and Their Parents
Parenthood and the Social-Emotional Development of Young Adults    267
The Attachment of Young Adults to Their Parents   •  The Role of Parents
in Promoting Young Adults’ Achievement of Intimacy   •  Parent–Child
Relationships and the Achievement of a Sense of Generativity
The Influence of Parent–Child Relationships on Young Adults’ Cognitive
Development   276
Parenthood and Higher-Level Reasoning: A Piagetian
Perspective   •  Parenthood and Vygotsky’s Concept of Scaffolding
The Parallel Role Development of Young Adults and Their Parents: The Role of
Filial Maturity    280
Dimensions of Filial Maturity
Summary   283
Test Your Knowledge    285
Useful Websites    285
Key Terms    285

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Chapter 10
Middle-Age and Older Parenthood and Grandparenthood    286
The Influence of Role Transitions on the Relationships of Middle-Aged Adults and
Their Adult Children    287
The Effects of Adult Children’s Normative Transitions   •  The Effects of Adult
Children’s Non-Normative Social Status Transitions   •  The Effects of MiddleAge Parents’ Social Status Transitions
The Influence of Role Transitions on the Relationships of Older and Middle-Age
Adults   291
The Effects of Older Adults’ Normative Role Transitions on the Relationships
with Their Children and Grandchildren
The Influence of Intergenerational Relationships on Older Persons’ Psychological
Development   293
Parent–Child Relations and Older Adults’ Sense of Integrity   •  Grandparenthood,
Personhood, and the Life Course   •  Grandparent Caregivers in the United
States   •  Grandparent–Grandchildren Relationships: A Global Perspective
The Able Elderly in the Family Context    299
The Relationships of Older Adults and Their Children
The Relationships of Aging Parents with Adult Children    304
When Older Parents Become Chronically Ill and/or Frail   •  The Challenges
Associated With Providing Care for Elderly Parents   •  Families and Assisted
Summary   310
Test Your Knowledge    311
Useful Websites    311
Key Terms    311

Chapter 11
Parent–Child Relationships in Families Where Children or Parents
Have Special Needs    312
Parenting Children Who Have Exceptionalities    313
The Importance of Person-First Language   •  Parental Reactions to
Having a Child With a Disability   •  The Role of Parents of Children
With Exceptionalities   •  The Challenges of Parenting Children With
Exceptionalities   •  Support for Parents Caring for a Child With a
Disability   •  Parental Advocates for Their Children With Exceptionalities
Parenting Children Who Have Cognitive Deficits, Autism, or Adhd   318
Parenting Children With Cognitive Impairments   •  Parenting the Child With
Autism   •  Parenting Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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