What Really Causes Aids

by Harold D. Foster

Author Harold D Foster Isbn 978 1553691327 File size 748 5 KB Year 2015 Pages 214 Language English File format PDF Category Medicine If you have AIDS or Hepatitis C this book is a MUST READ Important nutritional guidelines for improving immunity and improving the symptoms of AIDS dramatically The solutions are simple and inexpensive I am a nurse who is passionate about doing something about the AIDS epidemic I greatly admire this man and his work What Really Causes AIDS is a blueprint f

Publisher :

Author : Harold D. Foster

ISBN : 978 1553691327

Year : 2015

Language: English

File Size : 748.5 KB

Category : Medicine



What Really Causes AIDS

HAROLD D. FOSTER

i

© 2002 by Harold D. Foster. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by an means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
written prior permission of the author.

National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data
Foster, Harold D., 1943What really causes AIDS
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-55369-132-6
1. Selenium--Health aspects. 2. selenium in human nutrition.
3. AIDS (Disease)--Prevention. I. Title.
RC606.6.F68 2002
616.97’92061
C2001-904184-5

This book was published on-demand in cooperation with Trafford Publishing.
On-demand publishing is a unique process and service of making a book available for retail
sale to the public taking advantage of on-demand manufacturing and Internet marketing.
On-demand publishing includes promotions, retail sales, manufacturing, order fulfilment,
accounting and collecting royalties on behalf of the author.
Suite 6E, 2333 Government St., Victoria, B.C. V8T 4P4, CANADA
Phone
250-383-6864
Toll-free 1-888-232-4444 (Canada &US)
Fax
250-383-6804
E-mail
[email protected]
Web site www.trafford.com
TRAFFORD PUBLISHING IS A DIVISION OF TRAFFORD HOLDINGS LTD.
Trafford Catalogue #01-0534
www.trafford.com/robots/01-0534.html
10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

ii

Dedicated to Foinavon 444/1

iii

AUTHOR’S NOTE
This book is written and published to provide information on AIDS.
It is sold with the understanding that the publisher and author
are not engaged in rendering legal, medical, or other professional
services. In addition, this book is not to be used in the diagnosis
of any medical condition. If “expert” assistance is desired or required, the services of a competent professional, especially one
who is an expert in nutrition, should be sought.
Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and
accurate as possible. However, there may be mistakes both typographical and in content. Therefore, this text should be used as a
general guide and not as the ultimate source of information. Factual matters can be checked by reading the cited literature. This
book seeks to stimulate, educate, and entertain. The publisher
and the author shall have neither liability nor responsibility to
any entity or person with respect to any loss or damage caused,
or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the concepts or
information contained in this book. Anyone not wishing to be
bound by the above may return this volume for a refund of its
purchase price.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I should like to thank Dr. E.W. Taylor for offprints explaining how
HIV-1 and certain other viruses encode glutathione peroxidase.
Thanks are also due to Dr. Kevin Telmer, for the use of his photographs of Brazilnut trees and their products. Much of the information on the specific nutrient contents of foods was obtained
using NutriCircles for Windows, Version 4.21. This software is
produced by Drs. E.H. Strickland and Donald R. Davis, Strickland
Computer Consulting. Their kind support in providing a copy of
this software is greatly appreciated. My gratitude is also expressed
to several other people who assisted me in the preparation of this
volume. Jill Jahansoozi typed the manuscript. Diane Braithwaite
undertook the demanding task of typesetting, while cover design
and cartography was in the expert hands of Ken Josephson. My
wife, Sarah, helped proofread several drafts. Their dedication and
hard work is acknowledged with thanks. Debt also is acknowledged to the professional staff at Trafford Publishing for their
assistance with on-demand manufacturing and Internet marketing of this book.

v

Whoever wishes to investigate medicine properly, should proceed
thus: in the first place to consider the seasons of the year, and
what effects each of them produces ... Then the winds, the hot and
the cold, especially such as are common to all countries, and then
such as are peculiar to each locality. We must also consider the
qualities. In the same manner, when one comes into a city to which
he is a stranger, he ought to consider its situation, how it lies as to
the winds and the rising of the sun: for its influence is not the same
whether it lies to the north or the south, to the rising or to the setting
sun. These things one ought to consider most attentively, and concerning the water which the inhabitants use, whether they be marshy
and soft, or hard, and running from elevated and rocky situations,
and then if saltish and unfit for cooking, and the ground, whether it
be naked and deficient in water, or wooded and well watered, and
whether it lies in a hollow, confined situation, or is elevated and
cold: and the mode in which the inhabitants live, and what are their
pursuits, whether they are fond of drinking and eating to excess,
and given to indolence, or are fond of exercise and labour, and not
given to excess in eating and drinking.

Francis Adams, The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, 1849
(on Airs, Waters, and Places), vol. 1, p. 190

vi

WHAT REALLY CAUSES AIDS:
AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The AIDS pandemic is likely to become the greatest catastrophe
in human history. Unless a safe, effective vaccine is quickly developed, or the preventive strategies outlined in this book are widely
applied, by 2015 one sixth of the world’s population will be infected by HIV-1 and some 250 million people will have died from
AIDS. Its associated losses by then will be more than those of the
Black Death and World War II combined, the equivalent of eight
World War Is.1
This pandemic is only one of several ongoing catastrophes involving viruses that encode the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase.2
Indeed, the world is experiencing simultaneous pandemics caused
by Hepatitis B and C viruses, Coxsackie B virus and HIV-1 and
HIV-2. As these viruses replicate, because their genetic codes
include a gene that is virtually identical to that of the human
enzyme glutathione peroxidase, they rob their hosts of selenium.
Paradoxically, however, they diffuse most easily in populations
that are very selenium deficient,3 possibly because their members have depressed immune systems. It is no coincidence that
such viruses are causing havoc at the beginning of the 21st century. The last 50 years have seen enormous expansions in the
use of fossil fuels and deforestation by fire. The resulting pollutants have greatly increased the acidity of global precipitation, reducing selenium’s ability to enter the food chain. This situation is
being made worse by the widespread use of commercial fertilizers
since their sulphates, nitrogen, and phosphorus all depress the
uptake of selenium by crops. Deficiencies in this essential trace
element are being felt most acutely in areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, where soil selenium levels are naturally very low. Acid
rain is making a bad situation worse, so increasing vulnerability
to those viruses that encode glutathione peroxidase. Many
populations are also being exposed to a thinning ozone layer,
heavy metals such as mercury and cadmium, pesticides, and drug,
vii

tobacco, and alcohol abuse, all of which depress the human immune system, increasing vulnerability to viruses, including HIV-1
and HIV-2.
In July 2000, physicians and scientists from around the world
met in Durban, South Africa for the XIII International AIDS Conference. In a declaration, named after the city, 5,018 of them
proclaimed that “HIV is the sole cause of AIDS.”4 There are,
however, at least seven anomalies that strongly suggest that this
conventional wisdom is incorrect and that belief in it is blocking
progress in the development of new treatments for AIDS and of
novel ways of preventing its spread. To illustrate, despite widespread unprotected promiscuous sexual activity in Senegal, HIV1 is diffusing very slowly, if at all, amongst the Senegalese.5 It is
very apparent that in Africa, differences in soil selenium levels
are greatly influencing who becomes infected with HIV-1 and who
does not. Indeed, the recently published Selenium World Atlas
used the incidence of HIV-1 as a surrogate measure of soil selenium levels because actual levels are, as yet, poorly established
in sub-Saharan Africa. A similar relationship has been
documented in the United States6 where there has been an inverse relationship, especially in the Black population, between
mortality from AIDS and local soil selenium levels.
It is well established that individuals who are HIV-positive gradually become more and more selenium deficient.7 This decline,
which is known to undermine immune functions, is not unique
to HIV-infection but is seen in almost all infectious pathogens.8
However, under normal circumstances, where death does not
occur, selenium levels rebound soon after recovery. HIV-1, however, can effectively elude the defense mechanisms of the immune
system, and can continue to replicate indefinitely, endlessly depressing serum selenium. As a result, the immune system is
compromised, allowing infection by other pathogens that continue to deplete the host of selenium, allowing HIV-1 to replicate
more easily, further undermining immunity. Therefore, this relationship between selenium and the immune system is one of positive feedback, in which a decline in either of these two variables
viii

causes further depression in the other. Termed the “seleniumCD4 T cell tailspin” by the author,9 it is the reason that serum
selenium levels are a better predictor of AIDS mortality than CD4
T cell counts. Like other positive feedback systems, such as avalanches and forest fires, it is extremely difficult to control and
gains momentum as it progresses.
HIV-1, however, encodes the entire selenoenzyme, glutathione
peroxidase. As it replicates, therefore, it depletes its host not
only of selenium but also of the other three components of this
enzyme: namely, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan.10 AIDS,
therefore, is a nutritional deficiency illness caused by a virus. Its
victims suffer from extreme deficiencies of all four of these nutrients which are responsible for such symptoms as depressed CD4T
lymphocyte count, vulnerability to cancers (including Kaposi’s
sarcoma), depression, psoriasis, diarrhea, muscle wasting, and
dementia. Associated infections cause their own unique symptoms and increased risk of death.
HIV-1 alone, therefore, does not cause AIDS. It involves a multiplicity of co-factors, specifically anything that either depletes serum selenium levels or depresses the immune system enough to
permit viral replication. Manipulating the “selenium-CD4T cell
tailspin” by adding this trace element to fertilizers and food stuffs
opens new avenues for both prevention and treatment. This strategy has been shown to work on other viruses that encode glutathione peroxidase, such as Hepatitis B and C and the Coxsackievirus.
The logical treatment of AIDS patients involves supplementation
with selenium, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan, at least to
levels at which deficiency symptoms associated with a lack of these
nutrients disappear. While this can be most easily achieved by
supplements, certain foods contain elevated levels of those four
nutrients. Strangely enough, one of the ideal meals for anyone
who is HIV-seropositive would include a cheeseburger to which
Brazilnut flour had been added to the bun.

ix

Brazil nuts contain the highest levels of selenium found in
any human food.

x

REFERENCES
1.

Foster, H.D. (1976). Assessing disaster magnitude: A social science
approach. The Professional Geographer, xxviii(3), 241-247.

2.

Taylor, E.W. (1997). Selenium and viral diseases: Facts and hypotheses. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 12 (4), 227-239.

3.

Ibid.

4.

The Durban Declaration (2000). Nature, 406, 15-16.

5.

UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Senegal. 2000 update (revised).

6.

Cowgill, U.M. (1997). The distribution of selenium and mortality owing
to acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the continental United
States. Biological Trace Element Research, 56, 43-61.

7.

Baum, M.K., Shor-Posner, G., Lai, S., Zhang, G., Lai, H., Fletcher, M.A.,
Sauberlich, H., and Page, J.B. (1997). High risk of HIV-related
mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 15(5), 370374.

8.

Sammalkorpi, K., Valtonen, V., Alfthan, G., Aro, A., and Huttunen, J.
(1988). Serum selenium in acute infections. Infection, 16(4), 222224.

9.

Foster, H.D. (2000). Aids and the “selenium-CD4T cell tailspin”: The
geography of a pandemic. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients,
209, 94-99.

10. Mariorino, M., Aumann, K.D., Brigelius-Flohe, R., and Doria, D., van
den Heuvel, J., McCarthy, J.E.G., Roveri, A., Ursini, F., and Flohé,
L. (1998). Probing the presumed catalytic triad of a seleniumcontaining peroxidase by mutational analysis. Z. Ernahrungswiss,
37(Supplement 1), 118-121.

xi

There are causes for all human suffering, and there is a way by
which they may be ended, because everything in the world is
the result of a vast concurrence of causes and conditions and
everything disappears as these causes and conditions change
and pass away.
[The teachings of Buddha by
Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai,
112th revised edition]

xii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

AIDS: The Conventional Wisdom ...................................... 1

2

Termites in the Foundations .......................................... 11

3

The Road Ahead ............................................................. 27

4

The Enemy Within .......................................................... 37

5

HIV: The Achilles heel .................................................... 45

6

Selene: Goddess of the Moon .......................................... 55

7

The Selenium-CD4T Cell Tailspin ................................... 67

8

Why Now? ...................................................................... 75

9

Why Not Now? ................................................................ 87

10

Who is in Your Lifeboat .................................................. 99

11

Virtual Reality: The Prevention of AIDS ........................ 115

12

And This Too Shall Pass Away:
The Logical Treatment of AIDS ..................................... 139

Appendices .......................................................................... 161
Index ................................................................................... 167

The Author ...................................................................... 196

xiii

The evil that is in the world always comes of ignorance, and
good intentions may do as much harm as malevolence, if they
lack understanding. On the whole, men are more good than bad;
that, however, isn’t the real point, but they are more or less ignorant, and it is this that we call vice or virtue; the most incorrigible
vice being that of ignorance that fancies it knows everything
and therefore claims for itself the right to kill. The soul of the
murderer is blind; and there can be no true goodness nor true
love without the utmost clear-sightedness.
Albert Camus, The Plague

xiv

AIDS: THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM

1

Truth is not determined by majority vote.
Doug Gwyn

In July 2000, physicians and scientists from around the world
met in Durban, South Africa for the XIII International AIDS
Conference. In a declaration, named after the city, 5,018 of
them proclaimed that “HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] is
the sole cause of AIDS.” This highly unusual document, published in Nature,1 was more political than scientific, targeting a
small group of maverick researchers, most of whom supported
the views of Dr. Peter Duesberg,2 a microbiologist from the
University of California at Berkeley. Duesberg has argued consistently that HIV is merely a harmless passenger virus and
that AIDS is the result of destruction of the immune system by
long-term cumulative use of intravenous, recreational, and
pharmaceutical drugs, including AZT, cocaine, amphetamines,
and nitrite inhalants. He believes that noninfectious immunesuppressant factors in blood transfusions can lead to AIDS, as
can factor 8 taken by hemophiliacs.
Duesberg3 further points out that there is little evidence that
HIV is particularly active in the cells of those dying of AIDS
and that it does not infect enough lymphocytes to seriously
depress the immune system. He also believes that the current
method of testing for HIV is in error. Traditionally, the presence of antibodies to any infectious agent indicated that the
threat of serious disease had passed. The immune system has
recognized and can attack and control the invader. In the case
1

of HIV, antibodies are thought by conventional medicine to show
the worst is yet to come, that AIDS is eventually inevitable.
The epidemiology and geography4 of the AIDS pandemic both
clearly illustrate that Duesberg and his supporters are wrong.
One of the first individuals in North America known to have
developed AIDS was Gaetan Dugas,5 sometimes referred to as
Patient Zero, an airline steward. Gay, highly active sexually,
careless of the welfare of others and, above all, extremely mobile because of his employment, Dugas frequented bathhouses
throughout Canada and the United States. When interviewed,
in July 1981 by Dr. Mary Guinan, a researcher at the Centers
for Disease Control’s Venereal Disease Division, Dugas admitted to 250 sexual contacts a year, a total of some 2,500 gay
sexual partners.6 By April 12, 1982, 248 US gay men had been
diagnosed with AIDS (known at that time as GRID, Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). At least 40 of these had sex either
with Gaetan Dugas, or with someone who had. Dugas could
be linked to 9 of the first 19 cases of AIDS in Los Angeles, 22
cases in New York City and nine patients in eight other North
American cities. To quote Shilts,7 “A CDC statistician calculated the odds on whether it could be coincidental that 40 of
the first 248 gay men to get GRID [later renamed AIDS] might
all have had sex either with the same man or with men sexually linked to him. The statistician figured that the chance did
not approach zero—it was zero.”
Further evidence that AIDS is caused by a pathogen(s) was
provided by its diffusion in West Germany.8 All 44 of the initial
cases of AIDS reported there, on or before March 31, 1983,
had occurred in people who had either travelled to Haiti or
Africa or were amongst gay men who had vacationed recently
in California, Florida, or New York. This is hardly surprising
since each one of these locations was by then an AIDS hot
spot, where all sexual encounters were high risk.
2

A social science experiment to prove, once and for all, whether
HIV is essential for the development of AIDS would involve testing the inhabitants of one island regularly for HIV infection.
Those found to be positive would be immediately, permanently
quarantined. After several years the prevalence of AIDS would
be compared with that on neighbouring islands, where no such
HIV detection scheme had been in force. If the AIDS prevalence on the island undergoing such testing and quarantine
was significantly lower than that in neighbouring islands, the
evidence of a key role for HIV in AIDS would be overwhelming
and undeniable.
In 1983, Cuba began repeatedly to test its population for HIV.9
Since 1986, all those found positive have been quarantined in
sanatoriums. While Cuba’s response to the AIDS pandemic
may be viewed by some as an assault on personal freedom, it
has been exceptionally successful in preventing the spread of
AIDS into its 10 million population.10 By 2000, the cumulative
number of patients in Cuba11 to have developed AIDS was only
889, roughly 8.9 per 100,000 over the time span of the pandemic. In contrast, in neighbouring Jamaica,12 with a population of only some 2.56 million, there have been 2,963 cases of
AIDS. This is roughly 115 per 100,000 over the same time
period. Clearly, AIDS has been about 12 times more common
in Jamaica than in Cuba. Indeed, Cuba has one of the lowest
prevalence rates of HIV infection in the world13 and its experience appears to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that HIV
is involved in the development of AIDS.
The geography of AIDS continues to support the position that
at least one of its causes is an infectious pathogen. In New
Jersey, for example, the majority of the early AIDS cases did
not occur in gay men but in intravenous drug users, many of
whom shared contaminated needles. In the early 1980s, when
3

AIDS began to appear in New York State,14 it spread rapidly, in
ever expanding concentric circles, focused on the centre of Manhattan. Since this date, AIDS has tended to occur first in the
major cities of the Developed World, in gays, intravenous drug
users, and blood and blood product recipients, gradually diffusing into evermore remote rural areas. Such a spatial distribution pattern is much more typical of an infectious agent than
a toxin.15
Nevertheless, Duesberg has supporters in high places, including the South African government.16 This became apparent in
April 2000, 3 months or so before the XIII International AIDS
Conference was to be held in Durban when South African
President Thabo Mbeki appointed Duesberg to a government
task force on AIDS, designed to disprove its links to HIV-1.
Mbeki also sent a letter to US President Clinton and other
world leaders defending the right of maverick AIDS theorists
to be heard. Indeed, South Africa’s Deputy President, Jacob
Zuma17-18 declared that all sides of the debate had the right to
free speech and drew parallels between arguments about HIV’s
role in AIDS and the 17th century controversy surrounding Galileo’s belief that the Earth orbited around the Sun. In a statement released by the Office of the South African Presidency,
Zuma is quoted as saying “As we all know today, he was right
and they were wrong.” “Suppose we discover, as Galileo did,
that the so-called mainstream scientific view is incorrect,” said
Zuma. “Suppose there was even a one percent chance that the
solution lay elsewhere. As a country we cannot afford to overlook this possibility.”
On May 7th, 2000, Duesberg and nine associated AIDS dissidents issued a Minority Statement and Recommendations to the
Government of South Africa.19 In it they claimed HIV did not
cause AIDS and that AIDS was neither contagious nor sexually
transmitted. They also stated that anti-HIV drugs proved fatal
4

to many patients and caused side effects that could not be
distinguished from AIDS itself. Five recommendations were
made to the South African government as a result of these
beliefs. The first of these was that South Africa and indeed all
African countries should devote the bulk of their national and
international biomedical and other resources to the eradication and treatment of the predominant AIDS-defining diseases
(such as tuberculosis, malaria, and enteric infections); and to
the improvement of nutrition and the provision of clean water
and better sanitation. They also suggested the complete rejection of anti-HIV drugs; the promotion of sex education to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted
pregnancies; stopping dissemination of the false message that
HIV infection was invariably fatal and the suspension of HIV
testing. As a consequence of Duesberg’s influence,20 the South
African government refused to make AZT available in public
clinics and discontinued the drug’s use by its military. The
Durban Declaration,21 which promotes the conventional wisdom that HIV alone causes AIDS, was the medical establishment’s reaction to this public relations coup by the anti-HIV
mavericks.
Interestingly, the Minority Statement and Recommendations to
the Government of South Africa did not just upset the medical
establishment. It also drew fire from another group of AIDS
dissidents22 headed by John Scythes and Colman Jones, longterm advocates of undetected syphilis as the major causal variable in AIDS. Scythes and Jones quickly issued a statement of
their own which provided a point-by-point response to Duesberg
and his colleagues’ document. They argued that historically
syphilis often dispatched its victims by opportunistic infections
rather than through the classical direct effects of late syphilis.
Scythes and Jones provided evidence which they felt documented a key role for undiagnosed syphilis in AIDS. This idea
was not new. Dr. Stephen Caiazza, a Manhattan internist,
5



What Really Causes AIDS

HAROLD D. FOSTER

i

© 2002 by Harold D. Foster. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by an means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
written prior permission of the author.

National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data
Foster, Harold D., 1943What really causes AIDS
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-55369-132-6
1. Selenium--Health aspects. 2. selenium in human nutrition.
3. AIDS (Disease)--Prevention. I. Title.
RC606.6.F68 2002
616.97’92061
C2001-904184-5

This book was published on-demand in cooperation with Trafford Publishing.
On-demand publishing is a unique process and service of making a book available for retail
sale to the public taking advantage of on-demand manufacturing and Internet marketing.
On-demand publishing includes promotions, retail sales, manufacturing, order fulfilment,
accounting and collecting royalties on behalf of the author.
Suite 6E, 2333 Government St., Victoria, B.C. V8T 4P4, CANADA
Phone
250-383-6864
Toll-free 1-888-232-4444 (Canada &US)
Fax
250-383-6804
E-mail
[email protected]
Web site www.trafford.com
TRAFFORD PUBLISHING IS A DIVISION OF TRAFFORD HOLDINGS LTD.
Trafford Catalogue #01-0534
www.trafford.com/robots/01-0534.html
10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

ii

Dedicated to Foinavon 444/1

iii

AUTHOR’S NOTE
This book is written and published to provide information on AIDS.
It is sold with the understanding that the publisher and author
are not engaged in rendering legal, medical, or other professional
services. In addition, this book is not to be used in the diagnosis
of any medical condition. If “expert” assistance is desired or required, the services of a competent professional, especially one
who is an expert in nutrition, should be sought.
Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and
accurate as possible. However, there may be mistakes both typographical and in content. Therefore, this text should be used as a
general guide and not as the ultimate source of information. Factual matters can be checked by reading the cited literature. This
book seeks to stimulate, educate, and entertain. The publisher
and the author shall have neither liability nor responsibility to
any entity or person with respect to any loss or damage caused,
or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the concepts or
information contained in this book. Anyone not wishing to be
bound by the above may return this volume for a refund of its
purchase price.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I should like to thank Dr. E.W. Taylor for offprints explaining how
HIV-1 and certain other viruses encode glutathione peroxidase.
Thanks are also due to Dr. Kevin Telmer, for the use of his photographs of Brazilnut trees and their products. Much of the information on the specific nutrient contents of foods was obtained
using NutriCircles for Windows, Version 4.21. This software is
produced by Drs. E.H. Strickland and Donald R. Davis, Strickland
Computer Consulting. Their kind support in providing a copy of
this software is greatly appreciated. My gratitude is also expressed
to several other people who assisted me in the preparation of this
volume. Jill Jahansoozi typed the manuscript. Diane Braithwaite
undertook the demanding task of typesetting, while cover design
and cartography was in the expert hands of Ken Josephson. My
wife, Sarah, helped proofread several drafts. Their dedication and
hard work is acknowledged with thanks. Debt also is acknowledged to the professional staff at Trafford Publishing for their
assistance with on-demand manufacturing and Internet marketing of this book.

v

Whoever wishes to investigate medicine properly, should proceed
thus: in the first place to consider the seasons of the year, and
what effects each of them produces ... Then the winds, the hot and
the cold, especially such as are common to all countries, and then
such as are peculiar to each locality. We must also consider the
qualities. In the same manner, when one comes into a city to which
he is a stranger, he ought to consider its situation, how it lies as to
the winds and the rising of the sun: for its influence is not the same
whether it lies to the north or the south, to the rising or to the setting
sun. These things one ought to consider most attentively, and concerning the water which the inhabitants use, whether they be marshy
and soft, or hard, and running from elevated and rocky situations,
and then if saltish and unfit for cooking, and the ground, whether it
be naked and deficient in water, or wooded and well watered, and
whether it lies in a hollow, confined situation, or is elevated and
cold: and the mode in which the inhabitants live, and what are their
pursuits, whether they are fond of drinking and eating to excess,
and given to indolence, or are fond of exercise and labour, and not
given to excess in eating and drinking.

Francis Adams, The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, 1849
(on Airs, Waters, and Places), vol. 1, p. 190

vi

WHAT REALLY CAUSES AIDS:
AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The AIDS pandemic is likely to become the greatest catastrophe
in human history. Unless a safe, effective vaccine is quickly developed, or the preventive strategies outlined in this book are widely
applied, by 2015 one sixth of the world’s population will be infected by HIV-1 and some 250 million people will have died from
AIDS. Its associated losses by then will be more than those of the
Black Death and World War II combined, the equivalent of eight
World War Is.1
This pandemic is only one of several ongoing catastrophes involving viruses that encode the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase.2
Indeed, the world is experiencing simultaneous pandemics caused
by Hepatitis B and C viruses, Coxsackie B virus and HIV-1 and
HIV-2. As these viruses replicate, because their genetic codes
include a gene that is virtually identical to that of the human
enzyme glutathione peroxidase, they rob their hosts of selenium.
Paradoxically, however, they diffuse most easily in populations
that are very selenium deficient,3 possibly because their members have depressed immune systems. It is no coincidence that
such viruses are causing havoc at the beginning of the 21st century. The last 50 years have seen enormous expansions in the
use of fossil fuels and deforestation by fire. The resulting pollutants have greatly increased the acidity of global precipitation, reducing selenium’s ability to enter the food chain. This situation is
being made worse by the widespread use of commercial fertilizers
since their sulphates, nitrogen, and phosphorus all depress the
uptake of selenium by crops. Deficiencies in this essential trace
element are being felt most acutely in areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, where soil selenium levels are naturally very low. Acid
rain is making a bad situation worse, so increasing vulnerability
to those viruses that encode glutathione peroxidase. Many
populations are also being exposed to a thinning ozone layer,
heavy metals such as mercury and cadmium, pesticides, and drug,
vii

tobacco, and alcohol abuse, all of which depress the human immune system, increasing vulnerability to viruses, including HIV-1
and HIV-2.
In July 2000, physicians and scientists from around the world
met in Durban, South Africa for the XIII International AIDS Conference. In a declaration, named after the city, 5,018 of them
proclaimed that “HIV is the sole cause of AIDS.”4 There are,
however, at least seven anomalies that strongly suggest that this
conventional wisdom is incorrect and that belief in it is blocking
progress in the development of new treatments for AIDS and of
novel ways of preventing its spread. To illustrate, despite widespread unprotected promiscuous sexual activity in Senegal, HIV1 is diffusing very slowly, if at all, amongst the Senegalese.5 It is
very apparent that in Africa, differences in soil selenium levels
are greatly influencing who becomes infected with HIV-1 and who
does not. Indeed, the recently published Selenium World Atlas
used the incidence of HIV-1 as a surrogate measure of soil selenium levels because actual levels are, as yet, poorly established
in sub-Saharan Africa. A similar relationship has been
documented in the United States6 where there has been an inverse relationship, especially in the Black population, between
mortality from AIDS and local soil selenium levels.
It is well established that individuals who are HIV-positive gradually become more and more selenium deficient.7 This decline,
which is known to undermine immune functions, is not unique
to HIV-infection but is seen in almost all infectious pathogens.8
However, under normal circumstances, where death does not
occur, selenium levels rebound soon after recovery. HIV-1, however, can effectively elude the defense mechanisms of the immune
system, and can continue to replicate indefinitely, endlessly depressing serum selenium. As a result, the immune system is
compromised, allowing infection by other pathogens that continue to deplete the host of selenium, allowing HIV-1 to replicate
more easily, further undermining immunity. Therefore, this relationship between selenium and the immune system is one of positive feedback, in which a decline in either of these two variables
viii

causes further depression in the other. Termed the “seleniumCD4 T cell tailspin” by the author,9 it is the reason that serum
selenium levels are a better predictor of AIDS mortality than CD4
T cell counts. Like other positive feedback systems, such as avalanches and forest fires, it is extremely difficult to control and
gains momentum as it progresses.
HIV-1, however, encodes the entire selenoenzyme, glutathione
peroxidase. As it replicates, therefore, it depletes its host not
only of selenium but also of the other three components of this
enzyme: namely, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan.10 AIDS,
therefore, is a nutritional deficiency illness caused by a virus. Its
victims suffer from extreme deficiencies of all four of these nutrients which are responsible for such symptoms as depressed CD4T
lymphocyte count, vulnerability to cancers (including Kaposi’s
sarcoma), depression, psoriasis, diarrhea, muscle wasting, and
dementia. Associated infections cause their own unique symptoms and increased risk of death.
HIV-1 alone, therefore, does not cause AIDS. It involves a multiplicity of co-factors, specifically anything that either depletes serum selenium levels or depresses the immune system enough to
permit viral replication. Manipulating the “selenium-CD4T cell
tailspin” by adding this trace element to fertilizers and food stuffs
opens new avenues for both prevention and treatment. This strategy has been shown to work on other viruses that encode glutathione peroxidase, such as Hepatitis B and C and the Coxsackievirus.
The logical treatment of AIDS patients involves supplementation
with selenium, cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan, at least to
levels at which deficiency symptoms associated with a lack of these
nutrients disappear. While this can be most easily achieved by
supplements, certain foods contain elevated levels of those four
nutrients. Strangely enough, one of the ideal meals for anyone
who is HIV-seropositive would include a cheeseburger to which
Brazilnut flour had been added to the bun.

ix

Brazil nuts contain the highest levels of selenium found in
any human food.

x

REFERENCES
1.

Foster, H.D. (1976). Assessing disaster magnitude: A social science
approach. The Professional Geographer, xxviii(3), 241-247.

2.

Taylor, E.W. (1997). Selenium and viral diseases: Facts and hypotheses. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 12 (4), 227-239.

3.

Ibid.

4.

The Durban Declaration (2000). Nature, 406, 15-16.

5.

UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Senegal. 2000 update (revised).

6.

Cowgill, U.M. (1997). The distribution of selenium and mortality owing
to acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the continental United
States. Biological Trace Element Research, 56, 43-61.

7.

Baum, M.K., Shor-Posner, G., Lai, S., Zhang, G., Lai, H., Fletcher, M.A.,
Sauberlich, H., and Page, J.B. (1997). High risk of HIV-related
mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. Journal of Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 15(5), 370374.

8.

Sammalkorpi, K., Valtonen, V., Alfthan, G., Aro, A., and Huttunen, J.
(1988). Serum selenium in acute infections. Infection, 16(4), 222224.

9.

Foster, H.D. (2000). Aids and the “selenium-CD4T cell tailspin”: The
geography of a pandemic. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients,
209, 94-99.

10. Mariorino, M., Aumann, K.D., Brigelius-Flohe, R., and Doria, D., van
den Heuvel, J., McCarthy, J.E.G., Roveri, A., Ursini, F., and Flohé,
L. (1998). Probing the presumed catalytic triad of a seleniumcontaining peroxidase by mutational analysis. Z. Ernahrungswiss,
37(Supplement 1), 118-121.

xi

There are causes for all human suffering, and there is a way by
which they may be ended, because everything in the world is
the result of a vast concurrence of causes and conditions and
everything disappears as these causes and conditions change
and pass away.
[The teachings of Buddha by
Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai,
112th revised edition]

xii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

AIDS: The Conventional Wisdom ...................................... 1

2

Termites in the Foundations .......................................... 11

3

The Road Ahead ............................................................. 27

4

The Enemy Within .......................................................... 37

5

HIV: The Achilles heel .................................................... 45

6

Selene: Goddess of the Moon .......................................... 55

7

The Selenium-CD4T Cell Tailspin ................................... 67

8

Why Now? ...................................................................... 75

9

Why Not Now? ................................................................ 87

10

Who is in Your Lifeboat .................................................. 99

11

Virtual Reality: The Prevention of AIDS ........................ 115

12

And This Too Shall Pass Away:
The Logical Treatment of AIDS ..................................... 139

Appendices .......................................................................... 161
Index ................................................................................... 167

The Author ...................................................................... 196

xiii

The evil that is in the world always comes of ignorance, and
good intentions may do as much harm as malevolence, if they
lack understanding. On the whole, men are more good than bad;
that, however, isn’t the real point, but they are more or less ignorant, and it is this that we call vice or virtue; the most incorrigible
vice being that of ignorance that fancies it knows everything
and therefore claims for itself the right to kill. The soul of the
murderer is blind; and there can be no true goodness nor true
love without the utmost clear-sightedness.
Albert Camus, The Plague

xiv

AIDS: THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM

1

Truth is not determined by majority vote.
Doug Gwyn

In July 2000, physicians and scientists from around the world
met in Durban, South Africa for the XIII International AIDS
Conference. In a declaration, named after the city, 5,018 of
them proclaimed that “HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] is
the sole cause of AIDS.” This highly unusual document, published in Nature,1 was more political than scientific, targeting a
small group of maverick researchers, most of whom supported
the views of Dr. Peter Duesberg,2 a microbiologist from the
University of California at Berkeley. Duesberg has argued consistently that HIV is merely a harmless passenger virus and
that AIDS is the result of destruction of the immune system by
long-term cumulative use of intravenous, recreational, and
pharmaceutical drugs, including AZT, cocaine, amphetamines,
and nitrite inhalants. He believes that noninfectious immunesuppressant factors in blood transfusions can lead to AIDS, as
can factor 8 taken by hemophiliacs.
Duesberg3 further points out that there is little evidence that
HIV is particularly active in the cells of those dying of AIDS
and that it does not infect enough lymphocytes to seriously
depress the immune system. He also believes that the current
method of testing for HIV is in error. Traditionally, the presence of antibodies to any infectious agent indicated that the
threat of serious disease had passed. The immune system has
recognized and can attack and control the invader. In the case
1

of HIV, antibodies are thought by conventional medicine to show
the worst is yet to come, that AIDS is eventually inevitable.
The epidemiology and geography4 of the AIDS pandemic both
clearly illustrate that Duesberg and his supporters are wrong.
One of the first individuals in North America known to have
developed AIDS was Gaetan Dugas,5 sometimes referred to as
Patient Zero, an airline steward. Gay, highly active sexually,
careless of the welfare of others and, above all, extremely mobile because of his employment, Dugas frequented bathhouses
throughout Canada and the United States. When interviewed,
in July 1981 by Dr. Mary Guinan, a researcher at the Centers
for Disease Control’s Venereal Disease Division, Dugas admitted to 250 sexual contacts a year, a total of some 2,500 gay
sexual partners.6 By April 12, 1982, 248 US gay men had been
diagnosed with AIDS (known at that time as GRID, Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). At least 40 of these had sex either
with Gaetan Dugas, or with someone who had. Dugas could
be linked to 9 of the first 19 cases of AIDS in Los Angeles, 22
cases in New York City and nine patients in eight other North
American cities. To quote Shilts,7 “A CDC statistician calculated the odds on whether it could be coincidental that 40 of
the first 248 gay men to get GRID [later renamed AIDS] might
all have had sex either with the same man or with men sexually linked to him. The statistician figured that the chance did
not approach zero—it was zero.”
Further evidence that AIDS is caused by a pathogen(s) was
provided by its diffusion in West Germany.8 All 44 of the initial
cases of AIDS reported there, on or before March 31, 1983,
had occurred in people who had either travelled to Haiti or
Africa or were amongst gay men who had vacationed recently
in California, Florida, or New York. This is hardly surprising
since each one of these locations was by then an AIDS hot
spot, where all sexual encounters were high risk.
2

A social science experiment to prove, once and for all, whether
HIV is essential for the development of AIDS would involve testing the inhabitants of one island regularly for HIV infection.
Those found to be positive would be immediately, permanently
quarantined. After several years the prevalence of AIDS would
be compared with that on neighbouring islands, where no such
HIV detection scheme had been in force. If the AIDS prevalence on the island undergoing such testing and quarantine
was significantly lower than that in neighbouring islands, the
evidence of a key role for HIV in AIDS would be overwhelming
and undeniable.
In 1983, Cuba began repeatedly to test its population for HIV.9
Since 1986, all those found positive have been quarantined in
sanatoriums. While Cuba’s response to the AIDS pandemic
may be viewed by some as an assault on personal freedom, it
has been exceptionally successful in preventing the spread of
AIDS into its 10 million population.10 By 2000, the cumulative
number of patients in Cuba11 to have developed AIDS was only
889, roughly 8.9 per 100,000 over the time span of the pandemic. In contrast, in neighbouring Jamaica,12 with a population of only some 2.56 million, there have been 2,963 cases of
AIDS. This is roughly 115 per 100,000 over the same time
period. Clearly, AIDS has been about 12 times more common
in Jamaica than in Cuba. Indeed, Cuba has one of the lowest
prevalence rates of HIV infection in the world13 and its experience appears to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that HIV
is involved in the development of AIDS.
The geography of AIDS continues to support the position that
at least one of its causes is an infectious pathogen. In New
Jersey, for example, the majority of the early AIDS cases did
not occur in gay men but in intravenous drug users, many of
whom shared contaminated needles. In the early 1980s, when
3

AIDS began to appear in New York State,14 it spread rapidly, in
ever expanding concentric circles, focused on the centre of Manhattan. Since this date, AIDS has tended to occur first in the
major cities of the Developed World, in gays, intravenous drug
users, and blood and blood product recipients, gradually diffusing into evermore remote rural areas. Such a spatial distribution pattern is much more typical of an infectious agent than
a toxin.15
Nevertheless, Duesberg has supporters in high places, including the South African government.16 This became apparent in
April 2000, 3 months or so before the XIII International AIDS
Conference was to be held in Durban when South African
President Thabo Mbeki appointed Duesberg to a government
task force on AIDS, designed to disprove its links to HIV-1.
Mbeki also sent a letter to US President Clinton and other
world leaders defending the right of maverick AIDS theorists
to be heard. Indeed, South Africa’s Deputy President, Jacob
Zuma17-18 declared that all sides of the debate had the right to
free speech and drew parallels between arguments about HIV’s
role in AIDS and the 17th century controversy surrounding Galileo’s belief that the Earth orbited around the Sun. In a statement released by the Office of the South African Presidency,
Zuma is quoted as saying “As we all know today, he was right
and they were wrong.” “Suppose we discover, as Galileo did,
that the so-called mainstream scientific view is incorrect,” said
Zuma. “Suppose there was even a one percent chance that the
solution lay elsewhere. As a country we cannot afford to overlook this possibility.”
On May 7th, 2000, Duesberg and nine associated AIDS dissidents issued a Minority Statement and Recommendations to the
Government of South Africa.19 In it they claimed HIV did not
cause AIDS and that AIDS was neither contagious nor sexually
transmitted. They also stated that anti-HIV drugs proved fatal
4

to many patients and caused side effects that could not be
distinguished from AIDS itself. Five recommendations were
made to the South African government as a result of these
beliefs. The first of these was that South Africa and indeed all
African countries should devote the bulk of their national and
international biomedical and other resources to the eradication and treatment of the predominant AIDS-defining diseases
(such as tuberculosis, malaria, and enteric infections); and to
the improvement of nutrition and the provision of clean water
and better sanitation. They also suggested the complete rejection of anti-HIV drugs; the promotion of sex education to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted
pregnancies; stopping dissemination of the false message that
HIV infection was invariably fatal and the suspension of HIV
testing. As a consequence of Duesberg’s influence,20 the South
African government refused to make AZT available in public
clinics and discontinued the drug’s use by its military. The
Durban Declaration,21 which promotes the conventional wisdom that HIV alone causes AIDS, was the medical establishment’s reaction to this public relations coup by the anti-HIV
mavericks.
Interestingly, the Minority Statement and Recommendations to
the Government of South Africa did not just upset the medical
establishment. It also drew fire from another group of AIDS
dissidents22 headed by John Scythes and Colman Jones, longterm advocates of undetected syphilis as the major causal variable in AIDS. Scythes and Jones quickly issued a statement of
their own which provided a point-by-point response to Duesberg
and his colleagues’ document. They argued that historically
syphilis often dispatched its victims by opportunistic infections
rather than through the classical direct effects of late syphilis.
Scythes and Jones provided evidence which they felt documented a key role for undiagnosed syphilis in AIDS. This idea
was not new. Dr. Stephen Caiazza, a Manhattan internist,
5

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